X-SAMPA

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IPA and X-SAMPA chart

X-SAMPA is a phonetic script used to represent speech, that uses only 7-bit ASCII characters, so that it can be typed in any computer keyboard. It was developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, based on a previous code called SAMPA (Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet), developed by a European group.

Each X-SAMPA character sequence has a direct correspondence with an IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) symbol. All IPA symbols represented by lowercase letters are the same in X-SAMPA (this is not always the case with IPA symbols that use small caps letters). Other symbols are represented either by a character that has a graphical similarity (such as [3] for [ɜ]) or a character sequence that uses an "escape" character, such as the backslash (such as [J\] for [ɟ]). It should be noted, especially for novices, that X-SAMPA distinguishes upper-case and lower-case letters.

The people of ZBB have developed Z-SAMPA, an extension to X-SAMPA that represents some characters neglected by IPA (such as those that may not exist in natural languages).

See also: IPA, Z-SAMPA, Graphical X-SAMPA chart, X-SAMPA in Wikipedia, IPA in Unicode (Wikipedia)

In the tables below:

  • code = hexadecimal code for the IPA character. To use it in HTML, write ʈ = ʈ for example. Codes in italic are ASCII characters that can be typed normally (codes below 128).
  • IPA = IPA character in Unicode
  • XS = X-SAMPA representation
  • description = description of the phoneme
  • example = example of a language that uses it

Consonants

See also: Table of consonants (Wikipedia)

Pulmonic

See also: in IPA

code IPA XS description example
plosives
0070 p p voiceless bilabial plosive English p
0062 b b voiced bilabial plosive English b
0074 t t voiceless dental/alveolar/postalveolar plosive English t
0064 d d voiced dental/alveolar/postalveolar plosive English d
0288 ʈ t` voiceless retroflex plosive Swedish rt
0256 ɖ d` voiced retroflex plosive Swedish rd
0063 c c voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian ty
025F ɟ J\ voiced palatal plosive Hungarian gy
006B k k voiceless velar plosive English k
0067 g g voiced velar plosive English g
0071 q q voiceless uvular plosive Arabic q
0262 ɢ G\ voiced uvular plosive
0294 ʔ ? glottal stop
nasals
006D m m bilabial nasal stop English m
0271 ɱ F labiodental nasal stop
006E n n dental/alveolar/postalveolar nasal stop English n
0273 ɳ n` retroflex nasal stop Swedish rn
0272 ɲ J palatal nasal stop Spanish ñ
014B ŋ N velar nasal stop English ng
0274 ɴ N\ uvular nasal stop
trills
0299 ʙ B\ voiced bilabial trill
0072 r r voiced dental/alveolar/postalveolar trill Spanish rr
0280 ʀ R\ voiced uvular trill German r
taps
027E ɾ 4 voiced dental/alveolar/postalveolar tap Spanish r
027D ɽ r` voiced retroflex tap
fricatives
0278 ɸ p\ voiceless bilabial fricative
03B2 β B voiced bilabial fricative Spanish v
0065 f f voiceless labiodental fricative English f
0076 v v voiced labiodental fricative English v
03B8 θ T voiceless (inter)dental fricative English th as in "thing"
00F0 ð D voiced (inter)dental fricative English th as in "that"
0073 s s voiceless alveolar fricative English s
007A z z voiced alveolar fricative English z
0283 ʃ S voiceless postalveolar fricative English sh
0292 ʒ Z voiced postalveolar fricative French j
0282 ʂ s` voiceless retroflex fricative Swedish rs
0290 ʐ z` voiced retroflex fricative
00E7 ç C voiceless palatal fricative German "ich-laut"
029D ʝ j\ voiced palatal fricative
0078 x x voiceless velar fricative German "ach-laut"
0263 ɣ G voiced velar fricative
03C7 χ X voiceless uvular fricative Welsh ch
0281 ʁ R voiced uvular fricative French r
0127 ħ X\ voiceless pharyngeal fricative
0295 ʕ ?\ voiced pharyngeal fricative
0068 h h voiceless glottal fricative English h
0266 ɦ h\ voiced glottal fricative
lateral fricatives
026C ɬ K voiceless lateral fricative Welsh ll
026E ɮ K\ voiced lateral fricative
approximants
028B ʋ P, v\ voiced labiodental approximant Finnish v
0279 ɹ r\ voiced alveolar/postalveolar approximant English r
027B ɻ r\` voiced retroflex approximant American English r
006A j j voiced palatal approximant English y
0270 ɰ M\ voiced velar approximant
lateral approximants
006C l l voiced dental/alveolar/postalveolar lateral approximant English l
026D ɭ l` voiced retroflex approximant Swedish rl
028E ʎ L voiced palatal approximant Portuguese lh
others (see also in IPA)
028D ʍ W voiceless labial-velar fricative Old English hw
0077 w w voiced labial-velar approximant English w
0265 ɥ H voiced labial-palatal approximant French sui = /sɥi/
029C ʜ H\ voiceless epiglottal fricative
02A2 ʢ <\ voiced epiglottal fricative
02A1 ʡ >\ epiglottal plosive
0255 ɕ s\ voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative Polish ś
0291 ʑ z\ voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish ź
027A ɺ l\ alveolar lateral flap Japanese r
0267 ɧ x\ simultaneous ʃ and x Swedish skj,stj
026B ɫ 5 velarized lateral approximant English l as in "wool"

Clicks

See also: in IPA

code IPA XS description
0298 ʘ O\ bilabial click
01c0 ǀ |\ dental click
0021 ! !\ alveolar/postalveolar click
01C2 ǂ =\ palatoalveolar click
01C1 ǁ |\|\ alveolar lateral click

Voiced implosives

See also: in IPA

code IPA XS description
0253 ɓ b_< voiced bilabial implosive
0257 ɗ d_< voiced dental/alveolar implosive
0284 ʄ J\_< voiced palatal implosive
0260 ɠ g_< voiced velar implosive
029B ʛ G\_< voiced uvular implosive

Ejectives

See also: in IPA

code IPA XS description
02BC ʼ _> (ejective diacritic)
p_> voiceless bilabial ejective
t_> voiceless dental/alveolar ejective
k_> voiceless velar ejective
s_> voiceless alveolar fricative ejective

Affricates and double articulation

In IPA, affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie-bar if necessary. (Some common affricates were represented by a ligature, but they are considered obsolete now). In X-SAMPA, they are represented by an '_' (underscore) connecting the symbols. (In Z-SAMPA, they can be represented by ')' (close parentheses) after both symbols, which is better because it does not conflict with the notation for diacriticals).

code IPA XS description
0361 ͡. _ (the tie-bar - character codes below are provided for the ligature only)
02A3 d͡z, ʣ d_z affricate d + z
02A4 d͡ʒ, ʤ d_Z affricate d + ʒ(d + Z)
02A5 d͡ʑ, ʥ d_z\ affricate d + ʑ (d + z\)
02A6 t͡s, ʦ t_s affricate t + s
02A7 t͡ʃ, ʧ t_S affricate t + ʃ (t + S)
02A8 t͡ɕ, ʨ t_s\ affricate t + ɕ (t + s\)
- k͡p k_p coarticulated k and p
- g͡b g_b coarticulated g and b

Vowels

i (i) - y (y) ------ ɨ (1) - ʉ (}) ------- ɯ (M) - u (u)
       \                   \                     |
        \    ɪ (I) - ʏ (Y)  \              ʊ (U) | 
         \                   \                   | 
    e (e) - ø (2) ---- ɘ (@\)- ɵ (8) ----- ɤ (7) - o (o) 
           \                 \                   |
            \               ə (@)                |
             \                 \                 |
        ɛ (E) - œ (9) -- ɜ (3) - ɞ (3\) -- ʌ (V) - ɔ (O)
               \                \                |
          æ ({) \              ɐ (6)             |
                 \                \              |
            a (a) - ɶ (&) ---------------- ɑ (A) - ɒ (Q)

See also: in IPA, Table of vowels (in Wikipedia)

code IPA XS description example
0069 i i close front unrounded vowel English "feed"
0079 y y close front rounded vowel French "lune"
0268 ɨ 1 close central unrounded vowel Russian "ы" (yeri)
0289 ʉ } close central rounded vowel
026F ɯ M close back unrounded vowel Japanese "u"
0075 u u close back rounded vowel English "food"
026A ɪ I near-close near-front unrounded vowel English "sit"
028F ʏ Y near-close near-front rounded vowel
028A ʊ U near-close near-back rounded vowel English "good"
0065 e e close-mid front unrounded vowel German "zehn"
00F8 ø 2 close-mid front rounded vowel French "peu"
0258 ɘ @\ close-mid front unrounded vowel (close-mid schwa)
0275 ɵ 8 close-mid front rounded vowel (rounded schwa)
0264 ɤ 7 close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian "õ", Mandarin "-e"
006F o o close-mid back rounded vowel German "Sohn"
0259 ə @ schwa English a in "about"
025B ɛ E open-mid front unrounded vowel German "Bär"
0153 œ 9 open-mid front rounded vowel French "fleur"
025C ɜ 3 open-mid central unrounded vowel British English "girl"
025E ɞ 3\ open-mid central rounded vowel
028C ʌ V open-mid back unrounded vowel
0254 ɔ O open-mid back rounded vowel English "bought"
00E6 æ { raised open front unrounded vowel English "bat"
0250 ɐ 6 open-mid schwa
0061 a a open front unrounded vowel German "Hand"
0276 ɶ & open front rounded vowel
0251 ɑ A open back unrounded vowel English "bar"
0252 ɒ Q open back rounded vowel British English "box"

Suprasegmentals

See also: in IPA

code IPA XS description example
02C8 ˈ " Primary stress ˌfoʊnəˈtɪʃən, %foUn@"tiS@n
02CC ˌ % Secondary stress
02D0 ː : Long eː, e:
02D1 ˑ :\ Half-long eˑ, e:\
02D8 ˘ _X Extra short ĕ, e_X
002E . . Syllable break ɹi.ækt, r\i.{kt
007C | | Minor (foot) group
2016 || Major (intonation) group
203F -\ Linking (absence of a break)

Tones

See also: in IPA

Examples given with letter 'e'

code IPA X-SAMPA description
030B, 02E5 e̋ or e˥ e_T Extra high
0301, 02E6 é or e˦ e_H High
0304, 02E7 ē or e˧ e_M Mid
0300, 02E8 è or e˨ e_L Low
030F, 02E9 ȅ or e˩ e_B Extra low
030C ě e_R, e_/ Rise
0302 ê e_F, e_\ Fall
02E6 + 02E5 e˦˥ e_H_T High rising (example)
02E9 + 02E8 e˩˨ e_B_L Low rising (example)
02E9 + 02E8 e˦˥˦ e_R_F, e_H_T_H Rising-falling (example)
- e53 ?? Contour with subscripted numbers (see also Z-SAMPA alternative)
- ?? e_1 to e_6 Language-specific tone contours
2193 ! Downstep
2191 ^ Upstep
2197 <R> Global rise
2198 <F> Global fall

Diacritics

See also: in IPA

Notes:

  • not all browser/font combinations display combining diacritics correctly.
  • this is shown with big font size, because some diacritics are undistinguishable when very small.
  • some diacritics are used above a symbol if it has a descender, like g, ŋ
  • the second column was meant to show the diacritic on its own, but some of them simply disappear, so a letter "o" was added as support, (even though the combination may not make sense).
code(s) IPA examples XS description
0325,030A o̥ o̊ n̥ d̥ ŋ̊ _0 voiceless
032C s̬ z̬ _v voiced
02B0 tʰ dʰ _h aspirated
02B1 tʱ dʱ (?) breathy-voiced-aspirated(?)
0339 ɔ̹ _O more rounded
031c ɔ̜ _c less rounded
031F _+ advanced
0320 _- retracted
0308 ö ë _" centralized
033D _x mid-centralized
0329 ɹ̩ = syllabic
032F _^ non-syllabic
02DE ə˞ ɚ ` rhotacized
0324 b̤ a̤ _t breathy voiced
0330 b̰ a̰ _k creaky voiced
033C t̼ d̼ _N linguolabial
02B7 tʷ dʷ _w labialized
02B2 tʲ dʲ _j palatalized
02E0 tˠ dˠ _G velarized
02E4 tˤ dˤ _?\ pharyngealized
032A t̪ d̪ _d dental
033A t̺ d̺ _a apical
033B t̻ d̻ _m laminal
0303 õ ã ẽ ~ nasalized
207F oⁿ dⁿ _n nasal release
02E1 _l lateral release
031A _} no audible release
0334 ɫ n̴ _e velarized or pharyngealized
031D e̝ ɹ̝ _r raised
031E e̞ β̞ _o lowered
0318 _A advanced tongue root
0319 _q retracted tongue root

Numeric symbols

Many people find it difficult to remember the X-SAMPA numbers, so here are them all together.

No IPA code description examples
1 ɨ 0268 close central unrounded vowel Russian "ы" (yeri)
2 ø 00F8 close-mid front rounded vowel French "peu"
3 ɜ 025C open-mid central unrounded vowel British English "girl"
3\ ɞ 025E open-mid central rounded vowel
4 ɾ 027E voiced dental/alveolar/postalveolar tap Spanish r as in "caro"
5 ɫ 026B velarized lateral approximant English l as in "wool"
6 ɐ 0250 open-mid schwa
7 ɤ 0264 close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian "õ"
8 ɵ 0275 close-mid front rounded vowel (rounded schwa)
9 œ 0153 open-mid front rounded vowel French "fleur"