|A mirror of this page exists at FrathWiki. Note that both pages are updated independently, and thus may not always feature the same content.|
This is a collection of links from around the web that provide information about natural languages that can be helpful in either learning the language itself, or simply providing more information about how natlangs work. It is mostly an organization of the links found here. This list is not meant to be for conlangs of any kind or to include international auxiliary languages, no matter how widely spoken.
There is also a separate page with selected links to material about highly Inspirational Natlangs.
- 1 General Resources
- 2 Afro-Asiatic
- 3 Japanese-Ryukyuan
- 4 Korean
- 5 Altaic
- 6 Austro-Asiatic
- 7 Austronesian
- 8 Dravidian
- 9 Fajian
- 10 Indo-European
- 10.1 Albanian
- 10.2 Anatolian
- 10.3 Armenian
- 10.4 Baltic
- 10.5 Celtic
- 10.6 Germanic
- 10.7 Greek
- 10.8 Indo-Iranian
- 10.9 Italic
- 10.10 Slavic
- 10.11 Tocharian
- 11 Khoisan
- 12 Native American Language Families
- 12.1 Algonquian
- 12.2 Arawakan
- 12.3 Athabaskan
- 12.4 Caddoan
- 12.5 Cariban
- 12.6 Chibchan
- 12.7 Eskimo-Aleut
- 12.8 Gulf
- 12.9 Hokan
- 12.10 Iroquoian
- 12.11 Kiowa-Tanoan
- 12.12 Mayan
- 12.13 Muskogean
- 12.14 Oto-Manguean
- 12.15 Panoan
- 12.16 Penutian
- 12.17 Salishan
- 12.18 Siouan
- 12.19 Tucanoan
- 12.20 Tupian
- 12.21 Uto-Aztecan
- 12.22 Wakashan
- 12.23 Other / Isolates
- 13 North-West Caucasian
- 14 Niger-Congo
- 15 Nilo-Saharan
- 16 Paleo-Siberian
- 17 Pama-Nyungan
- 18 Sepik-Ramu
- 19 Sino-Tibetan
- 20 South Caucasian / Kartvelian
- 21 Tai-Kadai
- 22 Trans New Guinea
- 23 Tupi
- 24 Uralic
- 25 Unclassified, Isolates and Mixed Family Languages
- A Course in Phonetics
- UCLA Phonetics Lab Data
- IPA Charts with recordings
- IPA Audio Illustrations
- Phonetics, the sounds of spoken language
- Diachronic orgins of retroflex consonants
- NRSI: Computers & Writing Systems
- Ancient Scripts.com - very informative site about writing systems
- Omniglot.com - very informative site about writing systems
- Moby Multiple Language Lists of Common Words by Grady Ward
- YourDictionary - reference for English and other langs.
- Word2Word - Language Dictionaries and Translators.
- Basic Vocabulary
- Longman Defining Vocabulary
- USNA Language Studies Department
- The World Atlas of Language Structures
- Creative Relaxation Exercise - Mostly downloadable .docs for basic info on many langs.
- IU - Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Recording Archive
- Webradio stations around the world
- The Online Database of Interlinear Text
- The Linguistics Research Center (LRC)
- Grammar Writing for a Grammar-reading Audience - PDF file.
- The Lingua Descriptive Studies Questionnaire
- Leipzig Glossing Rules
- Wordgumbo "The site is primarily an archive of public domain and redistributable[sic] language learning resources."
- Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center
- Glottopedia - A linguistics wiki.
- alphaDictionary - Plenty of information on languages all over the world.
- The Tower of Babel Electronic Library - A large collection, especially in the database section. Some of it should be digested with care though: Starostin's Nostratic etymologies, for instance, are highly speculative.
- Spoken languages of the world, this site seems to have sound sample of almost spoken language that exist today.
- The Great Ngamo Tone Shift - PDF file.
- Arabic Romanization - ALA-LC PDF file.
- Arabic Romanization - Library of Congress PDF file.
- Arabic Romanization - BGN/PCGN 1956 System PDF file.
- Arabic Romanization PDF file. Also using BGN/PCGN 1956 System.
- Wikepedia entry for Arabic
- Wikimedia Commons entry for Arabic
- An open door to the Arab world Introduction to Arabic language
- The Arab World A collection of useful resources such as words, phrases, some grammar and expressions in Arabic.
- LookLex Online Arabic Course
- Arabic script The Omniglot entry for Arabic.
- Fun with Arabic
- Learn Arabic Online An on-line collegiate style site.
- Arabic Language Institute of Fez An info site about studying abroad in Morocco.
- ArabicLanguage.com More of an on-line store, but loads of good products
- Arabic Yamada Language Center links and resources for Arabic.
- Arabic Language & Middle East/North African Cultural Studies Background and info on Arabic
- Acon Verb Conjugator
- Arabic Calligraphy
- Typing in Arabic
- Maskilon English - Hebrew - English dictionary.
- Amharetz - allows you to type in Hebrew using an English keyboard by converting Latin transliteration of Hebrew into Unicode
- Proto-Sinaitic, Ugaritic & Phoenician Sign Chart
- Shodon: A Dialect of the Northern Ryukyus, by Samuel E. Martin
- (ja) Amami Dialect Database, Okinawa Center of Language Study
- The Phonemes of the Shodon dialect in Amami-Oshima (Part 1) (Part 2)
- Kanji Transliterator, the baby can do Kanji - Hiragna / Kanji - Romaji
- Japanese - odds and ends about Japanese.
- Japanese - A wealth of links to Japanese info.
- Kanji with example sentences in Japanese
- Japanese Language lessons
- An Introduction to the Japanese Language by Tomioka Nobuyuki
- General Dialects
- (ja) Ibaraki Database
- (ja) Atok: Database of Japanese Dialects
- (ja) The Dialect Study Room – illustrative maps of dialectal words and expressions, by the National Institute for Japanese Language
- Kagoshima Dialect
- (ja) Kagoshima Dialect (+phonology, morphology) & Dictionary
- (ja) Overview of the Kagoshima Dialects
- (ja) Dictionary of the Kagoshima Dialect
- (ja) Basic phonology and grammar overview of the dialect
- (fr) Ōgami — Éléments de description d'un parler du Sud des Ryūkyū
- (ja) Miyako Dialect Database, Okinawa Center of Language Study
- (ja) Shuri, Naha and Nakijin Dialect Database, Okinawa Center of Language Study
- (ja) Okinawan-English Wordbook
- Korean lessons
- Korean Lessons not very in depth.
- Korean, best to learn about Hangul.
- Hong's Hangul Conversion Tools
- Korean Course, nice for phrases.
- Khmer Lessons
- Study Khmer
- Learn Khmer
- Tom's Learning Khmer
- Khmer, Angkorian Khmer, and Proto-Khmer Numbers
- SEALang Khmer Dictionary
- Modern Spoken Khmer, by Franklin E. Huffman
- Sederet, English - Indonesia - English dictionary
- Online Nias - Indonesian - English dictionary
- Toggletest, English - Indonesia - English automated translator.
- Beginning Indonesian - An Indonesian course (in Indonesian, though) by the Univeristy of Victoria, BC
- Indonesian Dictionary - Kamus Indonesia-Inggeris
- Indonesian - Grammar and vocabulary
- Grammar of Nias (PDF)
- Online Nias - Indonesian - English dictionary
- Nias wordlist (uses nonstandard orthography, might not distinguish /w/ from /ʋ/)
- Early Indo-European Online
- Indo-European Language Tutorials
- The Slavic and East European Language Research Center Also includes resources and links for other (non-Slavic) languages.
- The Hittite Grammar Homepage Also Sumerian and Akkadian information.
- A Welsh Course
- An Introduction to Early Welsh - A PDF file.
- Reading Middle Welsh
- Wild Wales: Its People, Language and Scenery by George Henry Borrow
- Introduction to Old English
- Online Etymology Dictionary
- Words in English
- Urban Dictionary
- Alan Cooper's Homonym list - useful for English lerners
- The German Dictionary of the brothers Grimm, now digitalized -- in German, though
- A grammar of common features of Old High German dialects
- Manual of German language for English speakers
- Germanic Lexicon Project
- German Conjunction Summary
- Index of German Verbs
- Online German-English Dictionary
- Min-Jae Kwon: Modalpartikeln und Satzmodus. Untersuchungen zur Syntax, Semantik und Pragmatik der deutschen Modalpartikeln
- LEO German-English dictionary
- DICT.cc German-English dictionary
- Canoo.net German Grammar, ... and Word formation
- Icelandic Online - Icelandic course by the University of Iceland (Háskóli Íslands)
- Mímir - Tables of Icelandic morphology
- Icelandic Online Dictionary and Readings - An Icelandic-English dictionary by the University of Wisconsin
- Icelandic Primer with Grammar, Notes and Glossary
- Lexin Swedish-English Dictionary
- Svenska Akademiens Ordbok Swedish-swedish dictionary with etymology
- Devanagari Alphabet Used by Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi and Nepali.
Persian / Farsi
- The English Gipsies and Their Language by Charles Godfrey Leland
- Romano Lavo-Lil: word book of the Romany; or, English Gypsy language by Borrow
- Account of the Romansh Language by Esq. F. R. S. Joseph Planta
- The Catalan-Valencian-Balearian Dictionary a.k.a. Alcover-Moll
- Catalan dictionary (by the IEC)
- Catalan terminology (neologisms among others)
- Valencian orthography and pronounciation dictionary (by the AVL)
- Catalan grammar, by the IEC
- Valencian grammar, by the AVL
- Linguistic Atlas of Valencian
- Valencian dialectology
- A collection of maps related to Valencian (dialects, vocalism, consonantism, morphology...)
- Russian Lessons and Dictionary
- Russian Radio
- On-line Russian Reference Grammar
- Russian Dictionary In Russian; click the box under the entry field (labelled перевод) for translation to English.
- Khoisan Linguistics
- Phonology of !Xóõ
- Historical reconstruction of Khoisan
- Relationship between Kwadi and Khoe
Native American Language Families
Note: These are actually a collection of distinct languages families, grouped together for practical reasons.
Other / Isolates
- The Kamusi Project - An interactive lexical project for Swahili.
Note: Also included are Indigenous Australian languages which may be argued to belong to distinct family groups.
- Chinese Etymology, what it says on the tin.
- Online dictionary, English-Chinese Online Dictionary
- Mandarin Chinese Phonetics
- Chinese Characters and culture
- Chinese Radicals
- Kangxi Radicals
- Cojak Unihan Hanzi Radical Chart
- Hanzi fonts, this page also has Seal Script font.
- Xiaoma Chinese-English Dictionary, some phrases and idioms as well.
South Caucasian / Kartvelian
Trans New Guinea
- A grammar of Abui - PDF file
Magyar / Hungarian
- Sámi-related odds and ends Small dictionary and some grammar.