Shaja

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Adseten Shaja /ˈadsətən ˈʂa.ɟa/, usually just called Shaja, is a collaborative conlang that was produced by the members of the ZBB, principally Nuntar, Funkypudding, Waldkater, Circéus, Khemehekis, and Miekko, from November 2004 to January 2006. Sasasha and Delthayre were also part of the initial team, but Sasasha dropped out in March 2005; Funkypudding replaced him for a while but departed in April; and Delthayre left the team in December, with Funkypudding returning to replace him. We hope that, in Phase Two of the Shaja project, we and others will eventually develop daughter languages from it.

The Shaja Babel Text

  1. Cchuni shajat en cchuni xidjat tujeiban lhats lhitukaste.
  2. Lhauruq kashlut, michnariel rhafanhtanesh, ledena iksetlut rhauesh Shinaresh; psie treuesh atsebeqlut.
  3. Gaper ixetlut, ebfiru nashdef; psie chua farplajet naxheqi. En ebfirua tluceitfas exalut, en fiagelh purjinerfas exalut.
  4. Psie ixetlut, taka, la segitl luatfaurlu shialhchuaner lase parugelh flanhat nudseni; psie kieflua nashdef; nhalh faunh gurcchastebsu jarante lhan gsaxamnel ekiqaxh.
  5. Psie Xheraf druqmat, lhaur la estudi itlepi udsenlut laselh parugesh en flanhaste kietanagse.
  6. Psie Xheraf xitmat, neki, dfarat cchuni cherulu, en ucher bsi cchuni shajat axelu; psie lhafuari ajefichlu; psie cuesh la arheigmaunhlu janagse lasa saiseq churtuas flitsnel kieluq.
  7. Taka, nedruqi, psie ucheshajat netsauji, gaper ucheluasbenetsainagse.
  8. Nuts Xheraf achua faunh treueshtuas jarante gurcchastebsu gsaxammat; psie parugelh dsunanesh guxhlut.
  9. Nuts chuteni Babela jatlu; tsexh Xheraf treuesh shajat bsi jarante tsaujmat; psie treueshtuas Xheraf achua faunh jarante gurcchastebsu gsaxammat.

Phonology

Phoneme inventory

IPA X-Sampa
Plosives: /p b t d c ɟ k g/ /p b t d c J\ k g/
Fricatives: /f s ʂ ç x χ/ /f s s` C x X/
Affricates: /ts tɬ cç/ /ts tK cC/
Rhotics: /r r̞/ /r r_r/
Nasals: /m n ɲ ŋ/ /m n J N/
Laterals: /l ʎ/ /l L/
Vowels: /a i u ə/ /a i u @/
Diphthongs: /ai au əi əu ia ua iə uə/ /ai au @i @u ia ua i@ u@/

(Of the diphthongs, /ia/ and /ua/ are rising, the others falling.)

Phonological constraints

Syllables are C(C)(V)V(C) in roots; consonantless syllables may be introduced morphologically.

Any single consonant may begin a syllable. Any single consonant except /r̞ r_r/ may end a syllable.

Allowed syllable-initial clusters are as follows:

  • /s/ or /ʂ S`/ plus any plosive
  • /b/ /d/ or /g/ plus any fricative
  • /ks/ or /ps/
  • /ɟç J\C/
  • any non-palatal plosive or fricative plus /r/ or /l/
  • /nr/, /nl/
  • /ɟʎ J\L/, /çʎ CL/, /ɲʎ JL/

A syllable cannot contain an initial cluster and a rising diphthong.

Two plosives of different voicing cannot be adjacent in the word. Where this happens because a suffix beginning with a plosive is used, the plosive in the suffix assimilates to match the voicing of the preceding consonant; this is, however, not written.

Any consonant except /r̞ r_r/ and plosives may be geminated; however, geminates are fairly rare.

Allophony

  1. Fricatives become voiced intervocalically or next to voiced plosives.
  2. /t/ and /d/ become retroflex next to /ʂ s`/ or before /u/ or /ə @/. /n/ also becomes retroflex next to /ʂ s`/.
  3. Nasals assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant. This applies even when the following consonant is a nasal, creating a phonetic geminate.
  4. Vowels are nasalised before a nasal consonant.
  5. /a/ and /i/ become [ɑ A] and [ɯ M] before a (phonemic or phonetic) uvular.
  6. X/ becomes [ʁ R] syllable-finally.
  7. N/ becomes [ɴ N\] before /u/.
  8. /k/, /g/ and /x/ merge with /c/, /ɟ J\/ and /ç C/ before /i/.
  9. /i/ and /u/ become [e] and [o] unstressed before a consonant, or [ɛ E] and [ɔ O] when unstressed and word-final.
  10. Unstressed /ai/ and /au/ merge with /əi @i/ and /əu @u/.
  11. Unstressed /iə i@/ and /uə u@/ become [ɪ I] and [ɤ 7] (pronounced half-long).
  12. Stressed /ə @/ is pronounced [ɘ @\].
  13. /r/ in clusters is pronounced [ɾ 4] in fast speech by many speakers.

Stress

The penultimate syllable is stressed when it contains a falling diphthong; otherwise the antepenultimate syllable is stressed. Two-syllable words stress the first syllable.

Orthography

There is no standard orthography for Shaja; each person working on it is allowed to have their own. The orthography given below is that used for the lexicon on this page.

All IPA symbols that correspond with Latin lowercase letters are represented by those letters.

IPA Transcription X-SAMPA
/ɟ/ <j> /J\/
/ʂ/ <sh> /s`/
/ç/ <ch> /C/
/χ/ <xh> /X/
/tɬ/ <tl> /tK/
/r̞/ <rh> /r_r/
/ɲ/ <nh> /J/
/ŋ/ /N/
/ʎ/ <lh> /L/
/ə/ <e> /@/

Morphology

Nominal morphology

Shaja has eight cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental, causative, and comitative.

There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Several nouns referring to persons or animals can take any of the three genders depending on whether the person or animal is male, female or of unspecified gender. Groups of mixed gender are considered as neuter plural for verb and pronoun agreement.

Plurals are formed by changing a noun's root vowel and adding a vowel as a prefix:

Root vowel Vowel changes to Prefix
a, i, u e original root vowel
e no change a
ia, ua no change a
ai, au ei, eu a
ie, ue e first vowel of diphthong
ei, eu e a

Case endings for nouns depend on gender, as shown in the following table (with one noun of each gender as an example):

Case M F N M F N
Nominative - - - dsate shaja suq
Accusative -elh -at -a dsatelh shajat suqa
Genitive -i -ante -en dsatei shajante suqen
Dative -er -eit -er dsater shajeit suqer
Locative -esh -aste -esh dsatesh shajaste suqesh
Instrumental -is -its -eis dsateis shajaits suqeis
Causative -are -aret -are dsatare shajaret suqare
Comitative -u -ut -u dsatedu shajaut suqu

Some notes:

  • All the case endings start with a vowel. When the noun ends with a vowel, the two vowels merge if they are identical; if not, they form a diphthong if this is possible, or else an epenthetic consonant, usually /d/, is inserted (e.g. dsatedu from dsate + -u).
  • When the insertion of epenthetic /d/ would make the last two syllables identical, haplology occurs and reduces them to one. For instance, the comitative of katladu is katladu (the same as the nominative), not katladudu.
  • If a masculine or neuter noun ends in -sh, the -esh of the locative ending dissimilates to -ech.
  • If the noun ends in a diphthong, the ending usually loses its vowel. If the ending is just a vowel, it is retained, with the insertion of epenthetic /d/ if the ending vowel is the same as the second vowel of the noun's diphthong.

A noun's gender can sometimes be predicted from the ending of the nominative case. Nouns ending in -au or -e are usually masculine; those in -a usually feminine; those in -u usually neuter.

Personal pronouns

First (sing) First (incl pl) Second (sing) Third (sing m) Third (sing f) Third (sing n)
Nominative rhu nhad nhir xher tar chur
Accusative rhuelh nhalh nhilh xhelh talh chua
Genitive rhuen nhaden nhin xhen tan chun
Dative rhuer nhader nhir xher tar chur
Locative rhuesh nhadesh nhish xhesh tash chush
Instrumental rhus nhais nhis xheis tais chus
Causative rhuere nhadre nhire xhere tare chure
Comitative rhudu nhadu nhidu xheu tau chudu
Possessive rhu- nha- nhi- xhe- ta- chu-
Verbal rhuri anhedi nhiruse xherema tera cherulu

The plurals are regularly formed, in the same way as the plurals of nouns. The first person has two plurals: the inclusive (above) and the regular plural, used for exclusive.

The possessive prefixes replace possessive pronouns: thus, rhujau "my house". Their plurals are formed in the same way as plurals of nouns: urhejau "our [excl] house", etc.

The verbal pronouns replace the verb "to be": for instance, rhuri is used to translate "I am". The third person pronouns also replace the copula when the subject of the sentence is a noun: rhis raik tera, "the woman is cold".

Pronouns have a paucal form, formed by suffixing -ce or -te to the singular: -ce in the nominative, accusative, causative and comitative, -te in the other cases. (Note that rhuce is the first person exclusive paucal and nhadce the inclusive paucal.) The paucal is used to refer to a smaller, more limited group than the plural.

Pronouns also optionally inflect for distance: they can be marked as intimate (near the speaker) or distant. (This is of course redundant on the first person singular, and is almost never combined with the paucal in any person.) The intimate suffix is -ich, the distant -af.

Other pronouns

Shaja has a three-way distinction in the demonstrative pronouns between lhaur (this), lhan (that) and lhad (yon). There are additionally two emphatic demonstratives, lhafuar (this here) and lhafiar (that there).

Regular demonstratives can be nominalised by adding -uq, emphatic demonstratives by adding -seq. Both endings give rise to neuter nouns.

There is only one relative pronoun, las.

All these pronouns decline like quantitative adjectives (see below). However, demonstratives can be used as determiners, in which case they do not inflect: lhaur stued "this man" (and not lhaure, the normal masculine nominative form).

Adjectival morphology

Adjectives are classified as either qualitative or quanitative. Qualitative adjectives decline for case; quantitative adjectives decline for case and gender.

Qualitative declension:

Nominative -
Accusative -alh
Genitive -en
Dative -er
Locative -esh
Instrumental -esh
Causative -er
Comitative -(d)u

Quantitative declension:

M F N
Nominative -e -a -i
Accusative -elh -at -i
Genitive -e -an -in
Dative -er -at -er
Locative -esh -ats -esh
Instrumental -esh -ats -esh
Causative -are -aret -er
Comitative -edu -at -it

Adjectives can be negated with the prefix gun-: chiat "bright", gunchiat "dull".

Adverbs are formed from qualitative adjectives with the prefix far-, from quantitative adjectives with rua-.

The elative form is formed from qualitative adjectives with the prefix mun-, from quantitative adjectives with qia-. The elative followed by the comitative of the noun is used for comparative constructions: munkxemi kxeufadut "drier than the desert". The elative followed by the genitive plural of the noun acts as a superlative: munkxemi ekxafadante "the driest of deserts".

Some words, such as dfeura "bordering", are adjectives morphologically but behave syntactically as adpositions. They are prepositions, coming before their objects, and the object is put in the locative case.

Verbal morphology

Personal endings:

  • First person -i
  • Second person -se
  • Third person masculine -ma
  • Third person feminine -a
  • Third person neuter -lu

Tense endings:

  • Past -t
  • Present (unmarked)
  • Future -q

Aspect morphemes:

  • Perfect -maunh
  • Durative -jeib
  • Inchoative -fich

(A verb need not have any marked aspect.)

The order of morphemes, if all are present, is verb stem, aspect, person, tense.

If a verb ends in a diphthong including e, the e drops out before the -i and -a endings. Two identical vowels merge, so a verb in -ie would have first person -i.

Plural verbs are formed in the same way as plural nouns: the root vowel changes but the original vowel is added before the word.

Moods are formed with prefixes; note that if a plural verb is put in a non-indicative mood, the modal prefix comes before the prefixed vowel and loses its own vowel. The moods are:

  • Indicative (unmarked)
  • Imperative ne-
  • Conditional fu-
  • Desiderative lua-
  • Interrogative ca-
  • Energetic lhi-

Negatives are formed with the suffix -sai, which comes after the personal endings but before the tense endings. In the infinitive, -sai comes before the infinitive ending, and the present infinitive simplifies to -sain (from -saian).

Infinitives:

  • Past -tan
  • Present -an
  • Future -qan

Epenthetic /d/ is inserted in the present infinitive where necessary to prevent an impossible vowel cluster. Infinitives inflect for case in the same way as neuter nouns.

Positions

Positions are treated as suffixes. They can be used together with case suffixes (in which case they come after them) to indicate a different shade of meaning. All positions can be used alone (without a case suffix); it is one mark of an old-fashioned style to use a case (usually accusative) with every position.

Derivational morphology

  • Noun for female person: -a (e.g. nabar "god", nabra "goddess")
  • Augmentative: -aj (e.g. stued "man", stuedaj "giant")
  • Diminutive: -ex (e.g. tul "dog", tulex "puppy")
  • Collective noun: -at (e.g. cunh "star", cunhat "constellation")
  • Noun for meat of animal: -uf (e.g. tlash "cow", tlashuf "beef")
  • Noun for "land of": -nar (e.g. ksaga "sun", ksaganar "land of sun, south")
  • Noun from qualitative adjective: -um (e.g. chiat "bright", chiatum "brightness")
  • Noun from quantitative adjective: -sem (e.g. xhuad "big", xhuadsem "size")
  • Nouns from verbs:
Agentive -es (e.g. dik- "lead", dikes "leader")
Patientive -u (e.g. dli- "give", dliu "gift")
Name of process -ja (e.g. sha- "speak", shaja "speech")
  • Adjectives from nouns:
"Like" -mi (e.g. cchair "ice", cchairmi "icy")
"Having" -er (e.g. kxar "thirst", kxarer "thirsty")
  • Adjectives from verbs:
Resultative -mi (e.g. jait- "hallow", jami sacred")
Emotional -en (e.g. med- "to brood", meden "broody")
Gerundive -eda (e.g. muet- "to bear", mueteda "bearable")
  • Adverb from noun: shua- (e.g. tul "dog", shuatul "as/like a dog")
  • Colour name from noun: -mur (e.g. nhebren "tulip", nhebrenmur "orange")
  • Verb from adjective: -uq (e.g. nlexen "satisfied", nlexuq- "to satisfy")

Nouns formed with the -aj, -nar and -es suffixes are masculine; -a and -ja feminine; -ex, -um, -sem, -at, -u and -uf neuter. (Not all of these necessarily apply to nouns that have these endings by coincidence and are not formed with these suffixes.)

Syntax

Word order

Shaja is SOV by default, with the following exceptions:

  • VSO word order is used in questions. In declarative sentences it would sound affected and poetic.
  • OSV is available as an option in relative clauses, or to especially emphasise the object.

Adjectives normally precede nouns; so do determiners such as bsi (all) and demonstratives such as lhaur (this). Placing an adjective after a noun has the effect of emphasising the adjective. However, when a determiner modifies a pronoun (e.g. ucher bsi "all of them"), the pronoun always comes first; in fact, ucher bsi is almost treated as though it were a single word, though always written as two.

Genitive nouns can come either before or after the nouns they modify, although placing them before is less marked. Possessive pronouns are prefixes (see the pronouns table).

Where the direct object is an infinitive (as in "they stopped building the city"), it is normally placed in the normal object position, before the main verb, and if it has an object of its own (here, "city"), that comes before the infinitive. Note that in this example, the verb guxh- "to stop" is exceptional, and takes a locative object rather than the expected accusative.

Adverb placement

The unmarked position for an adverb is immediately before the verb. In a construction with an auxiliary verb (see below) the adverb is placed immediately before the verb it modifies, which can be either the main verb or the auxiliary.

Adverbs can also be placed differently for emphasis. Placing the adverb after the verb emphasises the action, with the manner indicated by the adverb being an incidental feature.

Use of pronouns

Shaja normally drops subject pronouns, as the information they provide is encoded on the verb. However, the subject pronoun can be retained for especial emphasis.

One special case in which the subject pronoun is normally retained is when the direct object is also a pronoun. In this case, dropping the subject pronoun has the effect of emphasising the object: talh sheirini "I love her (and not some other person you might think I love)".

Subordinate clauses

Relative clauses

Relative clauses are handled by placing the particle la before the clause and las after. Las inflects for case and gender, taking the gender of the noun modified by the relative clause, and an appropriate case to show the relation between the clause and the noun (genitive for an "of which" or "whose" clause, locative for an "in which" clause, etc.). Relative clauses as a whole precede the nouns they modify.

Intensional clauses

Intensional clauses (that is, clauses that are the direct objects of certain verbs such as "to say") are formed by placing the subordinate verb in the accusative infinitive. Each verb may have its own tense and aspect markers.

As the verb of the subclause has no person or number marking, if the subject is a pronoun it is nearly always retained. However, it may be dropped if it refers to the same subject as the verb of the main clause, as this will be understood as the default.

Comparative clauses

When a clause is the object of a comparison, it comes before the verb of the main clause, and is marked with ka before the clause and kas after: Xher ka anebar xhelh epralut kas prenmat, "He ran as if the gods chased after him".

As with intensional clauses, each verb may have its own tense and aspect markers.

Locative clauses

A subclause giving the place or time the main clause happened is marked by placing its verb in the locative infinitive. Alone, this means "as", as in "I shot him as he tried to escape". To indicate other meanings such as "after", "before", "where" or "near the place that", the locative infinitive is followed by the relevant postposition.

Infinitive of purpose

Where English uses the infinitive to show that one verb was done for the sake of another, as in "He came down to see the city", Shaja puts the second verb in the infinitive with the postposition -gse. Unlike English, the infinitive is made to agree with the main verb in tense.

Where the purpose of the main verb is to cause someone else to perform a second verb, gse is instead used as a conjunction, followed by a full clause with a finite verb. As an alternative, if the subject of the secondary verb is a pronoun, the construction with -gse as a postposition is used, and a possessive pronoun is prefixed to the verb. This construction is falling out of use, however.

Participles

Shaja has only a present participle, formed with the suffix -nel: kapnel stued "the throwing man". To form the equivalent of the passive participle, Shaja uses -nel affixed to a verbal pronoun and the accusative infinitive of the verb: cherunel kapana kapu "the ball being thrown".

The equivalent of the past participle, whether active or passive, is the comitative infinitive: kapanu stued "the man having thrown".

Auxiliary verbs

Auxiliary verbs are those that are meant to be used together with another verb, such as tel "to be able to". They are placed after the main verb, and the auxiliary takes all person, tense, and aspect information, while the main verb takes the -nel participle suffix. If there is a direct object, it retains its normal place before the verb.

Thus: Aqerelh fracnel teli, "I am able to carve rocks".

Passive

The above construction is also used to form the passive. Several different verbs can be used as the auxiliary; "to see" is most common and can be used even when it does not literally apply, when the action is one that cannot be seen. "To hear", "to receive", "to enjoy", "to withstand" and others are also used, in more restricted circumstances.

Impersonal

The (nominative) infinitive can be used as an impersonal form of the verb, equivalent to "one" or German man.

Reciprocal

Reciprocal action (where the subject and object both perform an action on each other) is marked by conjoining the subject and object into a compound subject, and placing the particle gaper in place of the object. However, gaper is optional and would often be understood: Usted aperma or, more formally, Usted gaper aperma, "the men killed each other". Gaper is invariable and does not decline.

When the subject and object act not on each other but on something belonging to each other, the construction daksat [object], with a plural verb, is used.

Object complements

Shaja recognises two types of object complements: transforming object complements, where the object is transformed into the complement, and non-transforming.

Transforming object complements are shown by placing the complement (whether a noun or an adjective) after the object in the instrumental case: Dxaktei cchanhesh jei, "I make the blanket red". (If the complement is a quantitative adjective, it agrees with the object noun in gender.)

Non-transforming object complements are shown with the postposition fa. Fa can also be used on adjectives in other places to give the adjective an extra emphasis: jau nhlhausfa, "the new house".

Numbers

Shaja has a hexal (base-6) number system. When used attributively, numbers decline like quantitative adjectives. The numbers up to 36 are as follows:

  1. cchun
  2. kie
  3. fai
  4. peut
  5. shur
  6. juna
  7. gatle
  8. kijuna
  9. fajuna
  10. tsaushur
  11. shujuna
  12. nhaxha
  13. cunhaxha
  14. kinhaxha
  15. fanhaxha
  16. penhaxha
  17. shunhaxha
  18. faiqa
  19. cufaiqa
  20. kifaiqa
  21. fafaiqa
  22. pefaiqa
  23. shufaiqa
  24. peuqa
  25. cupeuqa
  26. kipeuqa
  27. fapeuqa
  28. pepeuqa
  29. shupeuqa
  30. shuqa
  31. cushuqa
  32. kishuqa
  33. fashuqa
  34. peshuqa
  35. shushuqa
  36. tsilha
  37. tsilha cchun
  38. tsilha kie, etc.

60 is kietsilha, 90 is faitsilha, and so on. When a number above 36 is given a case ending, it goes on the last word only. 216 is jujuna, and 1296 is lhepeu.

Kinship terms

Shaja English
seldu older brother
lit younger brother
natsa older sister
shina younger sister
bliqar parent
dsate father
qian mother
tlipi child
mun son
shundec daughter
tsuq husband
maila wife
kuski uncle
gela aunt
qapi nephew
kaida niece
stum cousin (male)
suiba cousin (female)

The prefix psar- indicates a relative further removed: thus psardsate "grandfather". (The same word is used for great-grandfather or more distant ancestors; the psar- prefix should not be repeated.)

The prefix nhux- indicates a relative by marriage.

Lexicon

Shaja English
-adu place (suffix)
bab (m) chest, torso
bakis (m) salt
batl (n) meat
baunhja (f) power, advantage
bauq (n) hill, rise, viewpoint
bauq- to climb
ben (m) head
bexhe (m) kidney
bexhutl (n./qual.) bottom
beqsa (f) tree
bfieru (n) brick
bfugu (n) shirt
bipur (qual.) shiny
bixhag (m) brain
bled (m) middle, centre
bledsa (qual.) central
blerh (n) rubbish, waste, litter
bliqar (n) parent
bluen (qual.) flexible
bluq- to beget; to have a child
bre (qual.) fixed, hard, fast
brerhan (m) boy
bruexh (n) valley
bsa- to stand, to be located
bsad- to kill
bsanlau (n) distance
bsatl (m) liver
bsema (f) cacao
bseu- to live, to stay
bsi (quan.) all
bsiq (quan.) shallow
-bsu on, on the surface of
bsum (n) chocolate
buek (m) necklace
bumab (m) adolescent boy
bume (qual.) moody
bup (n./qual.) back
bupan (n) back (of body)
buq (quan.) heavy
bus (m) wolf
bush (qual.) low
buskha- to come down
bxar (n) yon, over there
caprach (m) armpit
cari (qual.) nearby
-cari near, close to
carte (quan.) other, the next one
carun- to approach
cas- to become
catenhja (f) desire, wish
catin- to desire, to wish
cchair (m) ice
cchairmi (qual.) freezing cold
cchairnar (m) north
cchak (quan.) thick
cchanh (qual.) red
cchusen (n) swamp
cchi (qual.) inner, interior
-cchi into
cei (quan.) small, soft (sound)
-cen action (suffix)
ceurket (m) carrion, corpse, carcass
chambu (n) bone
char (m) moon, moonlight
charej (m) month
charmi (qual.) soft, tender
chebutl (m) sausage
chelh (n) stream
chelte (qual.) other, strange, foreign
chiat (qual.) bright, fair
chiatum (n) brightness
chiditl (f) tail
choshin (quan.) loud
chras- to turn, to spin
chu (n) broom
chuan (n) kingdom, realm
chuaq (qual.) intelligent
chud- to cover, to shelter
churda (f) cream
ciat- to change
cienh (f) sunset
cies (qual.) quick, fast
ciesum (n) speed
cuab (m) button
cuesh now
cunh (f) star
cunhat (n) constellation
dafuen (qual.) interested
dafuja (f) interest
dafuq- to interest
daid (qual.) hard
daksa (f) the other
dalqu (n) lead
dan to, towards (physical goal)
danke further on
datl (f) river
dchixh (quan.) tall
deru (qual.) weak
deshitl (f) waist
dfar (m) human, man
dfarat (n) people, tribe
dfeura (qual.) bordering
dferu (n) edge, rim, margin
dfu- to fix, to attach
dfuja (qual.) sorry
dik- to lead
dikes (m) chieftain, leader
dit- to play
dli- to give
dliu (n) gift
dluen (qual.) green
draik (f) lake
dreu- to end, to finish
dreuja (f) end (noun)
drexhu (n) coat
dru (qual.) lower
-dru under, beneath, below
druq- to go down
dsaf- to kick
dsait (qual.) young
dsanh- to continue, to go on
dsate (m) father
dshun- to rule, to govern
dsim (n./qual.) front
dsiman (n) belly
dsun- to build
duexh- might, may
duf (qual.) pregnant
dum (m) bull
dxaga (f) cloth
dxagat (n) outfit; the clothes worn by a person
dxakte (n) blanket
dxhas- to love (a thing or abstraction)
en and
-fa (not translatable; see section on object complements)
falha (f) cat
falhex (n) kitten
-fas instead of (takes dative)
faunh around, in many directions
felh- to cook, to bake
felhu (n) bread
fenu (qual.) wild, large, vast
fescar- to choose
fiag (m) tar
fianh- to fight
fiash (n.) mind, spirit, will
fiashruan (n.) willpower
figrexh (m) muscle
finh (f) hunger
finher (qual.) hungry
flaite (qual.) brown
flanh (f) tower
flar (m) hair
flits- to prevent from doing, to block, to restrain
flurlha- to pray
frac- to carve, to engrave
fragtu- to jump
fraja (f) vegetable
fuaq (qual.) sick, unwell
fuja (n) sadness
fusen (qual.) sad
fusuq- to sadden
gaimba (f) zinc
gamitl (f) nail
gaper each other
gapta (f) society
gas- to drink
gasu (n) drink
gasha (f) sky
gauba (f) ovary
-ge next to, at, by
-geic to, towards (direction or metaphorical object)
gela (f) aunt
gemitl (f) intestine
gen (n) place
genej (m) hour
genhad (qual.) tired
gets (m) hill, mountain
geud- to carry from a place to another; to transport
geudan (n) stomach
gfe- to have the opportunity to
gfeu (n) opportunity, chance
gfijas (m) spine
giab- to hunt
giabes (n) hunter
giaja (f) hunting
giaxha (f) summer
giec- to touch
giedruq (qual.) upside-down
gieja (f) touch
gifte (m) scarf
gitl (n) pig
gitluf (n) pork
gixhe (n) freckle
gralut (m) arm
gregen (qual.) excited
greja (f) excitement
greguq- to excite
grenes (n) worker, labourer
grenit- to work
grenhja (f) work, labour
griqa (f) spleen
grush (m) dough
gsaxam- to scatter
-gse to, in order to
gshana (f) morning
gshuta (quan.) wide
gsur- to escape, to flee
gub- to meet
guch- to swim
gurccha (f) surface
gurha (f) egg
guxh- to stop doing
-iel away (with a precise direction)
jailu (n) poison
jainu (n) root (of plant)
jait- to hallow, to enchant
jaites (m) shaman
jalhiq (m) hat
jami (qual.) holy, sacred
janhu (n) gold
janin (m) salad
jara (f) world
jarat (n) universe
jatl (f) music
jatl- to be called
jatu (n) fetish, idol
jau (m) house
jaub (m) juice
jaxhud (n) wilderness, undeveloped land
jchi- to go
je- to do, make
jelhiq (qual.) ancient
jem- to resume
jer (f) branch, bough
jeta (f) leg
jinh (qual.) round
jlhad (qual.) old
jlhadum (n) age
ju- to help, to do someone a favour
juan (n) goodwill, grace
juash (m) fire
juatl (f) betrayal
juma (f) coffee
jumi (qual.) gracious, good, benevolent
juqe (qual.) purple
jut- to betray
ka like, as
kab- to knock
kaban (n) knuckle
kaich- to veil, to enshroud
kaida (f) niece
kais (n./qual.) left (opp. of right)
kam but
kap- to throw
kapu (n) ball, missile
karna (f) rose
kash- to happen
katl (f) grass
katladu (n) field, open space
kaxh- to cut; to laugh
ke (qual.) front, foremost
-ke in front of, before
kepsa (f) spring
kera (f) face
kian- must, (logically) has to
kie- to see, to look
kieflu (n) fame, reputation
kir (n) fish
kisa (f) rice
kitl (f) milk
kix (f) dawn
krain (quan.) unique
kralka (f) emerald
krats- to trap, to catch
kratses (m) trap
ksaga (f) sun
ksaganar (m) south
ksef- to move
ksegas (m) elbow
ksera (f) cloak
ksig- to bend (oneself)
ksit- to find, to discover
ksix- to scratch
ksub- to rot, to decay
ksubes (m) demon ("the decayer")
ksucen (n) decay (noun)
ksumen (qual.) bored
ksumuj- to bore
ksuna (qual.) pink
ksunhja boredom
ksur- to listen
ku- to come
kuas (qual.) immortal
kuasragrar (n) the underworld
kues (m) wrist
kubi (m) knee
kuj (n) throat
kuk (m) nut
kuski (m) uncle
kxar (f) thirst
kxarer (qual.) thirsty
kxeil (qual.) hot; ill-tempered
kxeila (f) adolescent girl
kxemi (qual.) dry
kxeufad (f) desert
lai (qual.) blue
lauq (n) snow
-le in
leden (n) plain
letseug- to include, to contain
letsun- to sit
lha (qual.) divine
lhad (m) shoe
lhaid (f) song
lhar- to cry, scream, shout
lhe (quan.) entire, total, whole
lhituk (f) earth, soil
lhituk- to give birth to
lhitukmi (qual.) earthy, grainy
lhuben (qual.) mute
lhuj (f) way, road, path
lhush (f) sea
lhushen (qual.) calm
lit (m) younger brother
lits- to proceed
luabe (m) night
lufa (f) skirt
lujchla (f) rite, ritual
lujchlaish (n) religious ceremony
maila (f) wife
maitl (f) tear
maki (m) cheek
malun (m) sauce
manu- to taste
mas- to take pride
masen (qual.) proud
masja (f) pride
med- to brood
meden (qual.) broody, depressed
medja (f) depression
meduq- to depress
mex- to bite
mich (m) dust
michnar (m) east
mijaxh (qual.) conscious
min (n) light
muan- to blow
much (n) nickel
muet- to bear, to carry
mun (m) son
mur (n) colour
nabar (m) god
nabra (f) goddess
nacen (n) marvel, miracle
nait- to marvel
nare (m) country, realm
nash (qual.) black
natla (f) lightning
natsa (f) older sister
nepu (n) umbilical cord
nham- must, is obliged to
nheb (f) lip
nhebat (n) mouth
nhebren (f) tulip
nhebrenmur (qual.) orange
nhip (m) robe, dress
nhlhaus (qual.) new
nhux- to marry
nhuxja (f) marriage
nid (n) nose
nike again
nikemi (qual.) familiar, common
nina (f) plant
nish (n) person
nlau (qual.) far, distant
-nlau far from
nleim (m) sandal
nlexen (qual.) satisfied
nlexja (f) satisfaction
nlexuj- to satisfy
nliqu (n) tea
nlish- to take
nlut (qual.) deaf
nras- to lure
nreik (m) penis
nuenh (f) ear
nuj (f) sand
nup (m) navel
nuts so, therefore
nuxhi (m) thunder
pachal (n) wing
pagal (m) village
paimit- to exceed, to surpass
paimrak (m) hero
panh (n) rain
parug (m) city
pasa (m) air
paux (quan.) deep
peitl (m) stick, staff
per- to kill deliberately, to murder
perek (m) knife, dagger
pi (m) mouse
pietu (quan.) thin
pipax (f) clitoris
pirdu (n) chin
pixh (n) foot
pixh- to go, to walk
pixhcen (n) direction
pixhja (f) journey
plajet (qual.) thorough
preit- to chase
pren- to run, to go fast
preu (qual.) yellow
psad (qual.) blind
psat- to fly
pshaf (n) dirt
psie and then
psix- to envy
psixen (qual.) jealous
psixja (f) envy, jealousy
psuch (n) alcohol, liquor
puja (f) boot
pulh- to hit, to strike
pulhja (f) stroke, beat
pumu (m) mind
pupi (m) nipple
purjin (n) mortar
putl (f) bush
qab (f) sleep
qaber (qual.) asleep
qabun- to sleep
qacche (m) ribbon
qair (m) (male) infant
qam (m) iron
qanhju (n) neck
qapi (m) nephew
qar (m) rock, boulder
qaren (qual.) nervous
qasen (f) cake
qaura (f) barley
qeja (f) soul
qemi (quan.) narrow
qian (f) mother
qiax (qual.) white
qiedu (n) vagina
qieduren (f) orchid
qim- to smell
qub (qual.) bad
qufaf (n) toe
qugam (n) ankle
qur (m) beer
raf- should, probably will
rafixh (n) cereal
ragas (n) wall
ragrar (n) pain
raik (qual.) cold
raikum (n) coldness, chill
ral (qual.) useful, good
rariq (qual.) mad, insane
rein (f) flower
reinit- to bloom
renech (m) heart
rhabi (m) blood
rhafanh- to journey
rhafanhja (f) journey
rhaig- to imagine
rham- to dance
rhamet (n) forest, wood
rhau (m) land
rhaux- to wield
rheb- love (physically)
rhem- to think
rheuat (n) continent
rheuch (m) the future
rhiq (f) hand
rhis (f) woman
rhudum (n) warmth
rhuan (n) strength
rhuag (qual.) strong
rhue (qual.) warm
rhuexh (n) hot drink
rhuf- to cry
rhulh (n) cookie, biscuit
rhush (m/f) child
riaxh- to fall
rib- to grow, to sprout
ribax (quan.) short
ridu (n) leaf
rim (m) coronet, diadem
rin (n) worm
rush (n) weather
sade (n) where, in the place that
safis (f) body
saiseq (n) nothing
san- to rejoice, be happy
sanen (qual.) happy
sanja (f) joy
sanuq- to delight
sar (quan.) high
sarluabe (m) midnight
sarspis (f) noon
sarum (n) height
sas- to chat, to gossip
sasu (n) gossip
saupus (m) bladder
sbanet- to understand
scaftain loyal
sce- should, ought to
sebu- to break
sedam (n) platinum
seflaxh (quan.) light (in weight)
segitl (n./qual.) top
sekat (n) cracker
seldu (m) older brother
selhan (f) nectar
selhud (n) honey
set (m) stone, pebble
setl (f) wheat
sexhu (n) ring
sha- to speak
shafatl (f) dumpling
shait- to wash
shaja (f) language
shakte (n) saying, proverb
shalet (qual.) talkative
sharja (f) tin
shat (qual.) flat
shaupa (f) womb
shbain- to sweep, to clean
shban- to eat
shbanja (f) dinner, lunch
shdaf- to shape, form, make
shdax (n) bowl, pot
shduel (m) mountain
shduel- to rule
shdueles (m) king, leader
shduelmi (qual.) majestic, awesome
shedar (m) friend
shedra (f) friend
sheirin- to love (a person, emotionally)
shetxau (qual.) wet
sheit (m) water
shelku (n) frost
shenhu (n) oesophagus
sheuma (f) girl
shga after
shgesa (f) pocket
shial (f) (female) infant
shialh (qual.) quiet
shialhchuan (n) heaven, paradise
shifrhud (qual.) brave
shij- will, is willing to
shina (f) younger sister
shkel (n) cave
shral- to stab
shreuq (qual.) stiff
shtafakaichu (n) mist, fog
shtafal (n) cloud
shua (qual.) upper
-shua above, over
shuam- to breathe
shubi (m) evening
shuk- to shut, to close
shukar (m) dusk
shundec (f) daughter
shunha (f) sugar
sic- to light, to shine
sika (f) here
silh- to sing
sinha (f) flour
sitl (f) urine
six (m) silver
sketl (f) heel
skeum- to push
skinh- to pull
skud- to attack
slep (quan.) few
spaixu (n) sock
spaju (n) wine
spami (f) clothing
spasher (qual.) awake
spashun- to wake up
spesha (f) jewellery
spis (f) day
spuj (n) grape
spujmur (qual.) burgundy
stash- to hear
staxu (n) cheese
stif (m) eyebrow
stued (m) man
stum (f) afternoon
stum (m) male cousin
stup (n) forehead
stuts- to punch
suag (m) horse
sualh (qual.) beautiful, good, admirable
sualhum (n) beauty
sub- to feel, to touch
subar (m) sheep
subarex (n) lamb
subarexuf (n) lamb (meat)
subaruf (n) mutton
such (n) trousers
suchunh (n) short trousers
suduq (qual.) unconscious
suen (m) tongue
suiba (f) female cousin
suq (n) fruit
suqat (n) fruit salad
sush (n) food
tac (quan.) long
tacum (n) length
taf (f) thigh
taka! come!
tashar (n) pudding, dessert
taxhan (n) flame
teisha (qual.) sweet
tek (n) storm
tel- to be able to
telja (f) skill, ability
teni (n) name
teu (quan.) only, merely
tfag (n) fence
tfaur- to reach
tfax (n) eye
tfaxat (n) sight
tiq (n) finger
tisniq (n) infant, toddler
tla- to begin, to start
tlabsa (f) raincoat
tlag (m) stalk
tlaig (n./qual.) right (opp. of left)
tlaja (f) beginning, start
tlajer (f) shoot (of plant)
tlak- to possess, to own
tlalteq (m) spear
tlash (f) cow
tlashex (n) calf
tlashuf (n) beef
tlax (quan.) having, with
tleg (f) vessel, jar
tlemitl (f) family
tlia- to peek, look at clandestinely
tliarheuch- to prognosticate, foretell
tlin- to sting, to pierce
tlipi (n) child (of a parent)
tlir (qual.) sharp
tlisa (f) year
tluc (f) stone (mass noun)
tluf (qual.) ugly
tluja (f) pie
traqfa (f) autumn
traxu (n) ham
treu (n) there
trim- to hurt, to feel pain
tru- to die
truja (f) death
truser (qual.) dead
tsam- to know
tsamja (f) knowledge
tsar- to rage
tsarja (f) anger
tsaren (qual.) angry
tsaruq- to anger, to enrage
tsauj- to mix up, confuse
tsaxes (n) belt
tseb (n) tooth
tsebeq- to settle
tsen (n) town
tseug- to hold, to retain
tseuga (f) shoulder
tsexh because
tsiju (n) ruby
tsin- may, is permitted to
tsuba (f) winter
tsueb (n) hoof
tsuq (m) husband
tu- to use
-tuas away from (direction irrelevant)
tul (m) dog
tulex (n) puppy
xag (qual.) slow
xale (m) life
xaleser (qual.) alive
xaleun- to live, to be alive
xamis (n) wind
xamisnar (m) west
xan- to beat up
xanh- to raise, lift, heave
xanhja (f) ascent, rise
xarna (f) copper
xasats (m) sapphire
xedit (n) adolescent
xei- to have
xeub- to fear
xeuben (qual.) afraid
xeubuq- to frighten
xeuja (n) fear, angst
-xha lest, so as to prevent
xhad (n) skin
xhal- won't, refuses to
xhale (m) tunic
xhamu (m) wood
xhaq- to burn
xhaispa (f) diamond
xharfi (m) bark (of tree)
xharh- to freeze
xhauch (f) fireplace, hearth
xhauchmi comfortable, safe
xheb- to hurt, to injure
xhin (n) soup
xhuad (quan.) great, big
xhuadsem (n) size
xhuag (qual.) intimidating
xhuar (m) loremaster, sage
xheurnat (n) lore, tradition
xhexhitl (m) testicle
xhudu (n) skull
xhugaq (n) lots, a huge number
xhugas (m) bottom, behind (of a person)
xian- to pause
xidja (f) speech
xidu (n) word
xit- to say
xix (qual.) healthy, well
xru (qual.) outer
-xru out of
xufus (m) faeces, excrement
xum (m) thumb
xutl (m) wind
xuxha (f) placenta