Falgwian

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Falgwian ['fa:5.gwi:an] (Falgwian: Falgwei ['fa5.gwaI']) is a language spoken by approximately 940,000 people in Falgwia (and surrounding countries). It is a language isolate, with no known linguistic relatives or ancestors beyond Old Falgwian. The order is Verb-Subject-Object (VSO) and nouns are governed by the cases: nominative, accusative, dative, locative, and an argued genitive. It has the numbers: singular, dual, and plural. The moods: infinitive, indicative, potential optative, and imperative. The aspects: imperfective, perfective, and habitual. And the tenses: present and past.

Grammar

Phonology

Consonants

BilabialLabiodentalAlveolarVelarUvular
Plosiveb pt dk g
Nasalmn
Trillr
FricativefsX
Labiow
Lateral Approximatesl

-w stays as [w] in consonant clusters (except the exception with h below), and also word initially unless the previous word ends in a vowel. Between vowels such as VCV, [w] allophones to [B]. [w] allophones to [b] in all situations that are CV and where the previous word ends in a vowel. This is due to lenition in Old Falgwian of /b/, as well as fortition of /w/ in non onset forms which allophoned to /B/.

-v as [v] is seen only in loanwords and oftentimes is completely allophoned to [w].

-f is realised as [f] word-initially and word finally. f is realised as [p] intervocalicaly and in the consonant clusters fm, fn, and pf which are realised as [p] due to the laxation of consonant clusters. [p] is also preserved in many loanwords ie. Priwet! A common greeting from Russian Privet. Over time, [p] has been lost and resurrected in Falgwian. Most recently its revival was due to German influence, causing the allophoning of [f] to [p], especially in the few remaining consonant clusters in Falgwian.

- The diphthongs ia, ie, io, and iu are all realised as [j]+vowel (except where seen word finally in loanwords). These are all created diphthongs to manage German and Russian loanwords. Some traditional words and names can still be found with the original loss of loaned [j] ie. Ohan not Iohan (Johann).

-h is realised as [X] unless followed by w, where it allophones to [W]. h is also realised as /h/ in most pronouns, particles, and prepositions.

-l is realised as [l] initially and word medially as in CV.CV where C is [l].

-l is realised as [5] only if syllable final.

The basic syllabic structure of Falgwian is CV.CV, with occasional consonant clusters usually consisting of C+/w/.

There is final obstruent devoicing of [d] to [t] and [g] to [k] in unstressed final syllables.

Vowels

Falgwian Script X-SAMPA Example
i /i/ dim ('because')
e /E/ mem ('around')
y /1/ fwyt ('with')
a /a/ wat ('I am')
o /O/ nok ('if')
u /u/ tu ('more')

Ai is /ei/.

Ei is /ai/.

-Stress is always on the first syllable in Falgwian.

Vowel Allophony

Falgwian has a considerable amount of vowel allophony since the written language has not been updated in any comprehensive manner (with the exception of Falgwianised loan words) since the 17th century. It will be outlined below according to the phoneme in question.

A

In most words, especially pronouns, of two or more syllables which end in an -a, the -a is often dropped completely. An example of this would be the accusative second person plural pronoun nama which is often realised as [nam] in speech. Where the a is proceeded by an h, the h will be deleted. An example of this would be the accusative second person dual pronoun nyha which is often realised as [nI] in speech (occasionally even [ni] when unstressed).

E

E is [e] in an open syllable (CV), [E] in a closed syllable (CVC), [3] before a rhotic (r) in a closed syllable, and [@] when unstressed word final. E is also often deleted word finally, especially so in pronouns of two or more syllables such as the dative first person plural pronoun wame which is realised as [wam]. As with the above a, in the dual this causes the deletion of h.

Ai

In most words of three or more syllables which end in an -ai, the -ai is often reduced simply to [i]. An example of this would be kuwynai which is realised as [ku'.wi.ni]*see below for further analysis* in speech.

Ei

In most words of three or more syllables which end in an -ei, the -ei is often reduced simply to [i]. An example would of this would be karytei which is realised as [ka'.ri.ti]*see below for further analysis* in speech.

Y

In most words of two or more syllables which end in an -y, the -y often allophones to [i]. An example of this would be feny which is realised as [fE'.ni:] in speech. Y also allophones to [i] in closed unstressed syllables such as the kuwynai and karytei examples above. Y allophones so often to [i] it's almost more worthy to denote it as phonemically [i] with an allophone to [I] in stressed syllables although this would be historically misleading.

Regarding the pronouns, while there is a conflation in speech of the nominative, accusative, and dative in the dual and plural in most persons, because of particle supremacy ambiguity is avoided in speech.

There are also irregular pronunciations and examples (usually in Falgwianised loanwords where diphthongs are retained) but another example is Tywei which is [t1Bi] in Tywei itself and its suburbs but elsewhere in the country is exclusively [t1BaI].

Alphabet

A AI, D, E, EI, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y

The alphabet is pronounced as follows:

/a:/ /eI:/ /de:/ /e:/ /aI:/ /ef:/ /ga:/ /Xa:/ /i:/ /ka:/ /e5/ /em/ /en/ /O/ /pe:/ /er/ /es/ /te:/ /u:/ /ve;/ /be:/ /1:bsilOni/*

  • Spelled Ypsilonei

Pronouns

Nominative

N.B. Pay close attention to the pronunciations.

First person:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ha hyha hami

-Ha is pronounced /a/ in unstressed positions and /ha/ in stressed positions. /Xa/ is almost nonexistent in speech.

Second person:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative nywi nyhi nami

Third person masculine:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mi myhi mami

Third person feminine:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative li lyhi lami

Third person inanimate:

The nominative third person inanimate pronouns are used with all endings. Also note, the third person inanimate is used to refer to a group of men and women.

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative teiwi teihi teimi

Accusative

The accusative pronouns are suffixed by a hyphen to the verb according to particle supremacy. The accusative also serves the purpose of the reflexive since Falgwian has no explicit reflexive. While any transitive action can become recipricol ie. reflexive, Falgwian has a tendency to use the reflexive less often than Indo-European languages. It should also be noted that the reflexive can be used to state a general action without the need for a personal subject as in The project will finish itself as opposed to I will finish the project (though both are equally acceptable). In anticuated Falgwian, the -a form corresponds to the impersonal reflexive.


First person:

Singular Dual Plural
Accusative wa wyha wama

Second person:

Singular Dual Plural
Accusative na nyha nama

Third person masculine:

Singular Dual Plural
Accusative ma myha mama

Third person feminine:

Singular Dual Plural
Accusative la lyha lama

Third person inanimate:

Singular Dual Plural
Accusative tai tahai tamai

Dative

Like the accusative pronouns, dative pronouns are suffixed by a hyphen to the verb according to particle supremacy.

N.B. Ocassionally the final -e is dropped off of the dative pronouns. This varies by dialect, but is becoming more widespread due to frequent use by the younger generation. In the dual, this causes the deletion of /h/.

First person:

Singular Dual Plural
Dative we wyhe wame

Second person:

Singular Dual Plural
Dative ne nyhe name

Third person masculine:

Singular Dual Plural
Dative mywe myhe mame

Third person feminine:

Singular Dual Plural
Dative lywe lyhe lame

Third person inanimate:

Singular Dual Plural
Dative tei tehai temai

Locative

The locative pronouns follow most prepositions except fwyt (with) and a few others which are specified later. The locative is also used after certain verbs.

First person:

Singular Dual Plural
Locative wu wyhu wamu

Second person:

Singular Dual Plural
Locative nu nyhu namu

Third person masculine:

Singular Dual Plural
Locative mu myhu meimu

Third person feminine:

Singular Dual Plural
Locative lu lyhu leimu

Third person inanimate:

Singular Dual Plural
Locative tu tuha tumai

Genitive

The genitive pronouns are both adjectival and nominal pronouns. Falgwian has complex rules for using possessives in general. Nouns which often do not take possessives (but may in English) include body parts and any noun which is about to be used (ie. a toilet, food, etc). To put it simply, nouns can only be possessed as concepts in their own right, where there existence or function is not about to be altered in some manner. This is so widespread in speech it's almost safer in Falgwian to not use the possessive pronouns at all and simply be corrected when they are used as opposed to when they aren't.

First person:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative hywa hyha hiema
Accusative hywat hyhat hiemat
Dative hywam hyham heimam
Locative hywag hyhag heimag

Second person:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative nywa nyha neima
Accusative nywat nyhat neimat
Dative nywam nyham neimam
Locative nywag nyhag neimag

Third person masculine:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mywa myha meima
Accusative mywat myhat meimat
Dative mywam myham meimam
Locative mywag myhag meimag

Third person feminine:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative lywa lyha leima
Accusative lywat lyhat leimat
Dative lywam lyham leimam
Locative lywag lyhag leimag

Third person inanimate:

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative tywai tywohai tywomai
Accusative tywait tywohaim tywomait
Dative tywaim tywohaim tywomaim
Locative tywaig tywohaig tywomaig

Pronoun and Particle Supremacy

Falgwian uses a system of pronoun and particle supremacy whereas post-verbal pronouns and particles, either hyphenated or not, must follow a verb in a strict syntactic order. That order is:

Verb-Accusative-Dative Aspect Negative Nominative

For example:

Linokair-ta-ne nas wi ha.

Give1PS-it-to you AORPERF NEG I

I never gave it to you.

Nouns

Nouns are divided into categories by their nominative endings, -a, -ai, -ie, -y, or -e. The most common ending is -ai, followed by -ei, -a, -y, and rarest, -e. They are occasionally grouped together by ending similarities as -a/-ai, -ei, -e/-y. They are governed by the Nominative, Accusative, Dative, and Locative cases. A Genitive case is argued to exist, but it is so degraded that some simply call it an irregular system. Cases do not always remove endings, so follow each on a case by case basis. It should also be noted that Falgwians drop the final -a and -e off of -a and -e nouns of more than one syllable. While this conflates the case endings in speech, their distinction is still relatively possible as there are very few -e nouns and typically such nouns involve a specific category.

Accusative Case

-a and -ai nouns add the ending -t

For example:

Taima- Taimat

Taimai- Taimait


-ei nouns take off the -ei and replace it with -y

For example:

Melokei- Meloky


-e and -y nouns add -n

For example:

Fyste- Fysten

Hywy- Hywyn

Dative Case

-a, -ai, and -ei nouns remove their endings and add -u:

Taima- Taimu

Teimai- Teimu

Melokei- Meloku


-e and -y nouns add -m

Fyste- Fystem Hywy- Hywym

Other Uses of the Dative

The dative case has another use after the preposition fwyt (with). For example:

Gweir nas tyky fwyt sinelu

I saw a man with a coat.

There are also some verbs which always take the dative, for example, nadyseit (to hold):

Nadyseir nas ha medailu uwa heimag mai'kulinag.

I held the medal in my hands.

Locative Case

The Locative Case is very similar to the same case as used in Slavic languages like Polish or Russian.

-a and -ai nouns add the ending -g.

For example:

Taima- Taimag

Taimai- Taimaig


-ei nouns take off the -ei and replace it with -ig.

For example:

Melokei- Melokig


-e nouns add a -g.

For example:

Fyste- Fysteg


-y nouns take off -y and replace is with -eig.

For example:

Hywy to Hyweig


Using the Locative for location.

When there is a clause of static location using the copula, you can use the nominative pronoun + locative ending on the noun.

Ha taimaig.

I house-LOC

I'm at the house.

There is also no "to" when using location.

Genitive Case/Condition

The Genitive adds -wydu (pronounced [wi]) to the possessed noun, and the possessor remains unmarked. The possessor always comes second to the marked possessed noun and is marked for plurality and case. The possessor also dictates the ending used for the noun phrase. The only exception is that -e nouns take the ending -wydo (pronounced [wi]).

For example:

Taima-wydu kuwynai

House-GEN dog

The Dog's House

Notice how kuwynai retains its nominative form, while -wydu has been attached to taima.

The genitive can also be used to mark the direct object of a negative verb, but it sounds very poetic and formal and it's hardly used by Falgwians since the genitive is a real pain to speak and write.

Case Summary

-a -ai -ei -y -e
Nominative -a -ai -ei -y -e
Accusative -at -ait -y -yn -en
Dative -u -u -u -ym -em
Locative -ag -aig -ig -eig -eg

Dual

If you have only two of a thing, the prefix he' has to be prefixed to the noun and no plural marker is used. He' is pronounced /he/, or occasionally /e/.


The dual is very frequently used in Falgwian. Its uses often extend beyond the marking of dual plurality. One example of this is the Falgwian tendency to mark a group or a team or a bunch of people using the dual. The use of this personalises the group with regards to the speaker. The dual is also often used in Falgwian to mark very large quantities of things or occasionally people. This is a result of the plural lacking the strength to emphasis a large quantity of something (the plural reads as 3-20 or so items), while this use of the dual emphasises a much larger quantity. The dual is also often used to mark the plural of -y and -e nouns as it is preferred over the use of mugy. In addition to all of this, Falgwians seek out uses where the dual is appropriate to mark dual plurality. If there's a chance the dual can be used, you can bet Falgwians will use it over the plural. In some cases the dual is even taking over the plural, though this is only in urban youth dialects and there are no known hard and fast rules to when the dual replaces the plural and when it does not.

Plural

The plural is prefixed, and so it does not interrupt the case endings attached to a noun. There is no plural prefix for -e and -y nouns. The plural marker is derived from the word mugymen meaning "many," and literally means "many," or three or more.

-a nouns: mai'

-ai nouns: ma'

-ei nouns: mu'

-y and -e nouns: No plural possible through prefixation. The particle mugy can precede any -y and -e noun and indicates many. The dual is also often used to mark the plural of -y and -e nouns.

Comparatives and Superlatives

To form a comparative in Falgwian add the word mise, usually, at the beginning of the sentence, and then followed immediately after by the comparative adjective. The unmarked relative pronoun form, naiwar corresponds to English "than."

Mise namedais wat igun taima naiwar agun taima.

More niceADJENDG be3PS that house that yonder house

That house is nicer than that further house.


To form a superlative use the modified form of mise, misenyt, which usually comes at the beginning of the sentence with the copula:

Misenyt namedais wat taima.

Most prettyADJENDG is house

That house is the prettiest.


Kalotein-wa ly teiwi wagweit mysenyt simideis tyky uwa Artig!

Cause3PS-meACC IMPRF itNOM tobeINFIN most happyADJENDG man on earthLOC!

It made me the happiest man on earth.

N,B.- Misenyt is not the same word as Dak, and can only be used with adjectives in superlative constructions.


To say something is as...as, use the expression My...Ko.

My hweides wiet mu'nulanei ko ma'wananai.

As tastyADJENDG are PLRLapple ko PLRLbanana.

Apples are as tasty as bananas.


N.B. Medy and Tedy become Med and Ted to form comparatives and superlatives.

Verbs

Infinitive

The infinitive ends in -eit or -ait and provides the stem for the base participles/present tense.

Infinitive: Mywait- To eat

Infinitive: Faligeit- To want


N.B.- In an infinitive noun phrase, all particles and pronouns follow the first conjugated verb, then any additional infinitives are added.

Base Participles

The base participles are the key to the Falgwian verb system. They are conjugated from the infinitive stem by removing the -ait or -eit and are paired with an auxilary to express tense and aspect. On their own the base participles represent the present tense and lack aspect.

Conjugation Summary:

-ait -eit
Ha -air -eir
Nywi -aim -eim
Mi/Li/Teiwi -ain -ein
Hyha -yr -yr
Nyhi -ym -ym
Myhi/Lyhi/Teihi -yn -yn
Hami -ir -ir
Nami -im -im
Mami/Lami/Teimi -in -in

Habitual Aspect

The habitual aspect is used in Falgwian to express an action which happens habitually or with some frequency. The aspect has two tenses, the present and past habitual tenses. While Falgwians have a tendency to seek out actions which are habitual in meaning to mark, they will quickly discard an action as habitual to mark as aorist or preterite if they so see it fit.

Habitual Present Tense

The habitual present is marked by a prefix to the present tense conjugated verb.

-ait verbs: my'

-iet verbs: mei'

To express a time measurement with the habitual, use the noun adverbially (by first turning it into an adjective by adding -d).

Talaidu my'wonair.

DayAVB work1PS.

I work every day.

Habitual Past Tense

The habitual past tense works the same way as the habitual present tense, except it refers to something that used to be done as a habit. It is marked by a prefix to the present tense conjugated verb.

-ait verbs: ty'

-iet verbs: tei'

Aorist Imperfective Aspect

The aorist imperfective aspect is marked using the particle ly positioned after the verb according to particle supremacy. The particle never inflects for person, number, or ending. The aorist imperfective tense serves the purpose of marking an event which is important to the speaker which has no explicit ending. One interesting note is that the aorist imperfective is always used in a main clause even when an ending seems implied.

Takyneir ly, sitylu hwanysair nas keiwyn.

Study1PS AORIMP, then open1PS AORPERF doorACC.

I was studying, then I opened the door.

The former clause is an aorist imperfective situation, and the latter an aorist/pretorite perfective situation, depending.

Also note that the there used to be a counterpart to the aorist imperfective in Falgwia, the preterite imperfective, but it long merged with the preterite perfective and has since disappeared from the language. Its use is thus seen as archaic. For informational sake, the preterite imperfective was marked with particle le positioned after the verb according to particle supremacy.

A Special Note Regarding the Aorist Imperfect

Within spoken Falgwian and much informal written Falgwian, the imperfect is falling out of use in favour of the pretorite/aorist. The imperfect can almost be seen as archaic or sounding uptight, though this varies between speakers.

Aorist Perfective Aspect

The aorist perfective aspect is formed with the auxiliary particle nas which follows the present form of the verb according to particle supremacy. The particle never inflects for person, ending, or number. The aorist perfective serves the purpose of marking completed or perfective past events which are important to the speaker. It is often paired with the pretorite perfective aspect, and is usually not regulated by strict rules, opting rather to be quite subjective.

Pretorite Perfective Aspect

The preterite perfective aspect marks unimportant completed past events. It is often paired with the aorist perfective, and is usually not regulated by strict rules, opting rather to be quite subjective. It is marked by a prefix to the present tense conjugated verb.

-ait verbs: fa'

-eit verbs: fy'

The preterite perfective is often used to set the scene, as opposed to the aorist imperfective.

Fy'wat huladas talai.

PRET'is3PS sunADJENDG day.

It was a sunny day.

Preterite Perfective vs. Aorist Perfective

There are no rules regarding when to use the pretorite or the aorist perfective. One can use the aorist or preterite perfective, respectively, for an entire paragraph, and in fact, some writers find it preferable. There is no manner to state a general past in Falgwian so one must pick between the pretorite or the aorist perfective. The aorist perfective is stronger at emphasising the action than the preterite perfective is at deemphasising it, however, so the pretorite perfective would more likely be used for a general past (although, Falgwians themselves typically avoid speaking in generals; rather they prefer to emphasise or deemphasise past actions.)


Mywair nas nulany, hylo fa'masykair-tasei.

Eat1PS AOR appleACC, then PRET'rid1PS-itACC.

I ate the apple, then I threw it away.

Mywait would most likely be in the aorist perfective, and masykait in the preterite perfective. But this is not always the case. It depends on the emphasis the speaker is trying to convey.

Verb Summary

-ait -eit
Aorist Imperfective ly ly
Preterite Perfective fa' fy'
Aorist Perfective nas nas
Habitual Present my' mei'
Habitual Past ty' tei'

Negative

The particle wi means "not" and follows the verb. Wi- can also be hypened to a noun to make its opposite, as in wi-taima homeless (this goes for all the forms illustrated below). Falgwian has no concept of the double negative as it is known in English. Various ways to express the negative are outlined below.


Nek- No

Neki- Nothing

Nekan- Nobody/one

Nekut- Nowhere

Neket- Never (Used to mean "never up to the time of reference," see Teine particle for contrastive uses)


The negative quantifier will always come after any particle involved in particle supremacy.

Lymeir wi nekit.

I have nothing.


Gweir wi nekanat

I can't see anybody.


N.B.- In Falgwian, a negative sentence that uses any in English, uses nek. Mek is only used in non-negative sentences.


Negative particles can also be stacked up, as such (the order does not matter). They are declined according to -a nouns and -a is added wherever necessary (-a is dropped in neki, meki, etc):

Tywaisair nas wi nekit nekutag nakanu.

I didn't buy anythingACC anywhereLOC for anyoneDAT.


Other forms that follow the same rule, but do not use the negative particle wi:

Mek- Any/Some

Mekan- Any/Somebody/one

Meki- Any/Something

Mekut- Any/Somewhere

Meket- Any/Sometime

Dak- Most

Dakan- Most people

Daki- Most things

Dakut- Most places

Daket- Most times

Tyk- Every/Each/All

Tykan- Everybody/one/Each person/All persons

Tyki- Everything/Each thing/All things

Tykut- Everywhere/Each place/All places

Tyket- Everytime/Each/All times


N.B.- To express the opposite of Dak, add San- as a prefix, so few things is San-dak. Also, any of the above particles may be hyphened to a noun.


Nekan, Mekan, Dakan, Tykan can also be used as pronouns:

Tenein mywait mekan.

Anyone can eat.

Potential Optative

The potential optative marks anything that might happen in the future 'I might go to the mall later' Or 'I might go with him'. There is no marker in Falgwian of absolute future constructions ie. what is often indicated in English by 'will'.

To mark the potential optative, add the particles dyn for -ait verbs and dein for -iet verbs after the verb according to particle supremacy.

The aorist and preterite are distinguished with the potential optative in the following constructions:

If I would have come, I would be happy.

Aor + Pot Opt

If I come, I will be happy.

Pret + Pot Opt

Imperative

The imperative is very simple, simply drop the t from the infinitive. The imperative can refer to all persons or one person, there is no distinction made. The negative imperative simply adds wi after the verb.

Passive

To construct the passive in Falgwian, one must conjugate the infinitive according to the passive participle endings given below. Notice that the passive retains different conjugations in the dual for -ait and -eit nouns. For the instigator (in English, what is followed by 'by'). Attach the accusative of the object affected by the instigator as well as any other particles after according to particle supremacy. Finally, attach nat by a hyphen to the instigator of the action. Nat is a passive marking particle.

Conjugation Summary:

-ait -eit
Ha -ais -eis
Nywi -aitis -eitis
Mi/Li/Tiewi -aisi -eisi
Hyha -as -es
Nyhi -atis -etis
Myhi/Lyhi/Tiehi -asi -esi
Hami -is -is
Nami -isiti -isiti
Mami/Lami/Tiemi -isi -isi


For example:

Lynakeisi-wa nas nat-tykei

Kick3PS-1PSACC AORPERF PAS-man

I was kicked by the man

[Lit: Kicked-me by man]

But, what about, I was kicked?

Lynakeisi-wa nas nat

Kick3PS-meACC AORPERF PAS

I was kicked.

Irregular Verbs

Infinitive: Wagweit- To be

Ha- War

Nywi- Wam

Mi/Li/Teiwi- Wat

Hyha- Wys

Nyhi- Wan

Myhi/Lyhi/Teihi- Wyd

Hami- Weir

Nami- Weim

Mami/Lami/Teimi- Weit


Special Note: When Wagweit is used with a question word:

Hwar- What

Hwog- How

Hwyn- Which

Hwen- Why

Hwak- When

Hwit- Who

Hwis- Where

It contracts according to this chart:

War Wam Wat Wys Wan Wyd Weir Weim Weit
Hwar Hwar'a Hwar'am Hwar'at Hwar'ys Hwar'an Hwar'yd Hwar weir Hwar weir Hwar weit
Hwog Hwog'ar Hwog'am Hwog'at Hwog'ys Hwog'an Hwog'yd Hwog weir Hwog weir Hwog weit
Hwyn Hwyn'ar Hwyn'am Hwyn'at Hwyn'ys Hwyn'an Hwyn'yd Hwyn weir Hwyn weir Hwyn weit
Hwen Hwen'ar Hwen'am Hwen'at Hwen'ys Hwen'an Hwen'yd Hwen weir Hwen weir Hwen weit
Hwak Hwak'ar Hwak'am Hwak'at Hwak'ys Hwak'an Hwak'yd Hwak weir Hwak weir Hwak weit
Hwit Hwit'ar Hwit'am Hwit'at Hwit'ys Hwit'an Hwit'yd Hwit weir Hwit weir Hwit weit
Hwis Hwis'ar Hwis'am Hwis'at Hwis'y Hwis'an Hwis'yd Hwis weir Hwis weir Hwis weit

Expressing "To have"

Falgwian, like its Baltic neighbours, is a have-less language meaning it lacks the verb "to have." Rather, to form a verb of possession Falgwian employs the verb Wagweit and the dative. The possessed noun is used in the nominative as the subject of Wagweit while the possessor is used in the dative.

For example:

Wat-we karytei.

I have a car.

Lit: Car is to me.

Note however the use of "to have" in an expression of obligation. For this sense Falgwian does have a verb which is Fyneit - to have to/must.

Adjectives

Indefinite Adjectives

Adjectives precede the noun and agree with the noun in number, ending, and case. They are usually found in the dictionary as ending in a -d, although irregularities do exist. The -d form is also the form used for the plural of -y and -e nouns. When multiple adjectives modify the same noun, they are hyphenated together. Below is the declination table for indefinite adjectives (as well as definite adjectives to a point). Note that unmarked adjectives are considered indefinite.

Regarding the use of both indefinite and definite adjectives, Falgwian does not use adjectives to create predicate construction situations where the adjective is separated from the noun by the copula. For attributive uses of the adjective, Falgwian employs the adjective clause though this itself is limited as Falgwian cannot modify a verbless main clause as in The man, satisfied with his work, went along on his way as The man who was satisfied with his work went along on his way.

Singular Dual Plural
-a -ai -a -ai -a -ai
Nominative -ais -as -ihais -ihas -imais -imas
Accusative -ait -at -ihait -ihat -imait -imat
Dative -aim -am -ihaim -iham -imaim -imam
Locative -aig -ag -ihaig -ihag -imaig -imag
Genitive -ain -an -ihain -ihan -imain -iman


Singular Dual Plural
-ei -ei -ei
Nominative -es -ihes -imes
Accusative -et -ihet -imet
Dative -em -ihem -imem
Locative -eg -iheg -imeg
Genitive -en -ihen -imen


Singular Dual
-y -e -y -e
Nominative -eis -is -iheis -ihis
Accusative -eit -it -iheit -ihit
Dative -eim -im -iheim -ihem
Locative -eig -ig -iheig -iheg
Genitive -ein -in -ihein -ihin

N.B. Medy and Tedy are irregular and do not decline. However, they become Med and Ted to form comparatives and superlatives and in this case have to decline.

Definite Adjectives

Falgwian distinguishes definiteness in adjectives. The definite adjective is formed by the addition of the hyphenated prefix wesi- to a declined indefinite adjective. Definite adjectives cannot be used in comparatives or superlatives. Falgwian also can use the definite adjective on its own without a headnoun as in English, The good and the bad, Falgwian, Wesi-medy ei wesi-tedy.

Allophony

There is a considerable amount of allophony with adjectives, especially regarding the declination of adjectives. This allophony exists on all adjectives, indefinite and definite. With forms where there is a choice between a phoneme and silent, the silent usually prevails on adjectives of three or more syllables. Pay close attention to the phonetic realisation of each ending.


Singular Dual Plural
-a -ai -a -ai -a -ai
Nominative [is] [as] [is] [as] [imis] [imas]
Accusative [it] [at] [it] [at] [imit] [imat]
Dative [eim] [am] [eim] [am] [eim] [am]
Locative [i] [a] [i] [i] Silent Silent
Genitive [ein] [an] [ein] [an] [ein] [an]


Singular Dual Plural
-ei -ei -ei
Nominative Silent [i] or Silent [im]
Accusative [@] or Silent [i] [im]
Dative Silent [i] or Silent [im]
Locative [@] or Silent [i] [im]
Genitive Silent [i] or Silent [im]


Singular Dual
-y -e -y -e
Nominative [is] [is] [is] [is]
Accusative [it] [it] [it] [it]
Dative [aim] [im] [im] [im]
Locative [i] [i] [i] [i]
Genitive [ain] [in] [in] [in]

Adverbs

Adverbs precede verbs and generally end in -u, and less often -un. Adverbs are not listed in dictionaries, and are made by the addition of -u or -un to adjectives. They are entirely regular, and go immediately before verbs. To form an adverb, simply add -u to the end of an adjective. Only add -un if the adjective ends in a stop, ie. t, k, n, and m. -n is also used when an adjective ends in a vowel.

Medy and Tedy are Medu and Tedu respectively.

Adverbs of Location

Falgwian has several forms for the adverbs of location ie. English here and there (as well as now and then)

Situ- Here (close to speaker) Now (Soon)

Sitymu- There (close to listener) No form

Sitywu- There (moderately far from speaker (may or may not be close to listener)) Now/Then (Unspecified time (interchangeable with below))

Sitylu- Yonder (very far from speaker (may or may not be very far from listener)) Now/Then (Unspecified time (interchangeable with above))

Sityhu- Yonder (very far from speaker and listener) Then (Far off)

Clauses

Noun Clauses

A Falgwian noun clause involves the subordinate clause acting as the subject, object, indirect object, or locative of the independent clause. Noun clauses cannot be formed in Falgwian to represent situations where the subordinate clause is a subject compliment or adjective compliment, nor to form a genitive situation. Noun clauses use the appropriate relative pronouns (see below). The pronouns are declined ONLY for the case of the subordinate clause. The syntax of such clauses is always:

V (S), rel. pn. and clause

Relative Clause

Relative clauses are dependent clauses that modify nominals, that is, either nouns or noun phrases. Falgwian relative clauses used to behave as common adjectives, this is, they preceded the noun they were modifying [their head], but in the last years it has assimilated to a degree. Furthermore, Falgwian relative pronouns have quite a complex morphology that, with a few irregularities, are largely agglutinating. Syntactically, relative clauses come after the verb in a sentence, and before their head. In Falgwian their syntax is thus:

V (S) , rel. pn. and clause , Antecedent (O)

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns have basically three parts; in morphological order they are the number agreement, the root, which we can think about as being the actual relative pronoun, and the case (relative pronouns are not declined for noun endings). The number agreement is simple enough; nothing for the singular, he'- for the dual and ma'- for the plural. For case, the pronoun is declined according to -a nouns (-a is added before the ending where necessary). Relative pronouns are declined and take the number of the antecedent as according to its role in the relative clause whereas the antecedent is declined and takes the number according to its its role in the main clause.

Relative Pronoun Root English Equivalent
Thing Naiwar What, That, Which
Manner or Reason Naiwog Why, How
Person Dawit Who
Time Dawak When
Place Dawynmutei Where
Condition Dawok If/Whether

N.B There is no genitive relative pronoun. There is no way to form a genitive relative clause in Falgwian.

As can be seen, the second part of the relative pronoun root mirrors pretty precisely the interrogative pronouns, save that they don’t have an initial h-, the fact that Dawynmutei probably stems from a periphrastic which place construction, the fact that naiwog conflates the semantic functions of hwog and hwen (the interrogative how and why particles), and that dawok is likely the remnant of a no longer existing conditional interrogative pronoun).

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

A restrictive clause is a relative clause which is, in English, not offset by commas and adds necessary information to the antecedent. While a nonrestrictive clause is, in English, offset by commas and unnecessary to the construction of the sentence; it simply provides extra information. Falgwian forms such clauses the same making no distinction. They are formed as normal adjectives, so therefore the order is:


V (S), rel. pn. and non/restrictive clause, Antecedent (O)


Ko afrikai uwa fliterwokenig, dawit kytalai manafein nas, tykie

The man who got married yesterday is going on his honeymoon to Africa.


Ko afrikai uwa fliterwokenig, dawit kytalai manafein nas, tykie

The man, who got married yesterday, is going on his honeymoon to Africa.

Adverbial Clauses

Falgwian uses “subordinisors” or subordinating conjunctions to introduce adverbial clauses that act as adverbs by modifying verbs. Like normal adverbs, adverbial clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions precede the verb they modify.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinisor Meaning
Fwaina Before that
Yti After that
Yna By the time that, As soon as that
Noka Since that
Mili While that
Kylu If that
Hwa Only if that, Only when that
My Like that, Similarly that
Tulu Imitating that, Trying to look like that
Al Even though that, Regardless of that
Weli Because that

At is an archaic subordinator which means how, the manner in which, the way in which.


Also, these kind of adverbial phrases can be preceded by the negative particle wi, which turns the polarity of the entire adverbial phrase to negative. The syntax, therefore, surrounding subordinators is:

(wi) sub clause, V (S) O

Prepositions

To give a mere list of all Falgwian prepositions with English equivalents for each of them is futile, since the use of prepositions varies so much from one language to another. For example: the English preposition in frequently corresponds to the Falgwian preposition uwo; but this does not apply to such constructions as in a week (Falgwian: ko kelimeg), in the reign of King John (Falgwian: yna ewokei-wydu kenig-Ohan), in my opinion (Falgwian: ko hywa tylanai), a man in a coat (Falgwian: tykei fwyt sinelu), in memory of (ko mynasai), etc. The correct use of the prepositions can only be learnt through practice, but examples may give an illustration of their use. The most important Falgwian prepositions are listed below, in their alphabetical order, and for each preposition is given (a) the most important English equivalents, (b) examples illustrating their principal use, and (c) special idioms. Ko is not discussed here. (Loc) indicates that the preposition takes the locative.


Fyrina [f1rina]

(I) In front of

Wam nywi fyrina nu. (Loc) He is in front of you.

Fawynin nas fyrina taimaig. (Loc) They met in front of the house.

(2) Before

Wat mywa tyk-faly fyrina mu. (Loc) His whole life was in front of him.


Hwytin [W1tin]

(I) After (rank, place, number, time, etc.)

Ynamai keiwyn hwytin nu! (Loc) Shut the door after yourself!

Talai hwytin talaig. (Loc) Day after day.

Nadysein nas Mynomasei residenu hwytin Kalutanei. Mynomasei became president after Kalutanei.

(2) For (intention)

Fa'ko li maketei hwytin wutaig. (Loc) She went to the store for butter.

Gwein ly mi hwytin mywag welosiwig. (Loc) He looked for his bike.

Rytamein nas mi taimu hwytin nykonig. (Loc) He wrote home for money.

Faligein ly mi hwytin lu. (Loc) He longed for her.

N.B. The beneficiary for/to uses hywtin.


Ka [ka]

(I) Through

Lynein ly mi ka tylawa memaseig. (Loc) He walked through the forest.

Talyhein nas ka agenig. (Loc) It was sold through an agent.

Fy'feir ka hywag feikwaig. (Loc) I heard it from my sister.

Gwein ly mi ka okinaig. (Loc) He looked in through the window.

Gwei-tai ka YouTube Watch it on YouTube.

(2) Throughout

Ka mywag faleig. (Loc) Throughout one's life.


Lina [lina]

(I) By, past

Fy'lynein mi lina wu. (Loc) He walked right by me.

(2) Beyond

Wat teine lina ky. That's way beyond normal.


Tatu [tatu]

(I) From

Lymeir syweirait tatu hywa mekei. I have a letter from my friend.

Ko nas mi tatu taimai ko taimai. He went from house to house.

Kelime tatu fweitake. A week from Friday.

Wie tatu- Apart from, besides

(2) Off

Leiwysein sarinei tatu wiresei. The wind blows off the pier.

Werytei-no tatu kreditai-wydu nykonei! Keep away from money-lenders!

N.B. The location-wydu form often used to express where one is from can only be used with actual locations or equivalent.


Y [1]

(I) At (aim)

Masykin nas wunyn y kuwynaig. (Loc) They threw stones at the dog.

Masykain nas mami y maseig. (Loc) He aimed at the tree.

(2) Towards

Gweir y memaseig. (Loc) I look towards the forest

Ko Particle

Ko has many uses in Falgwian of which several are outlined below. It's worth mentioning that one of ko's principle uses is as the Falgwian verb to go, albeit it is not used like a normal verb. As the verb to go, ko is used to indicate the travel to a place (Note that ko cannot be used in the imperative and never calls upon the locative).


Ko ha Tywei.

I go to Tywei.


Ko dyn taimai.

Ko FUTOPT I house

I will go to the house.


Faligier ko Tywei.

Want1PS I go Tywei

I want to go to Tywei.

Also note that any tense marker (including the potential optative) can be placed directly after ko to indicate the appropriate tense. Ko always takes the -ait form.


Ko is also used as Ko-DAT (lit: It goes to SUB) to indicate a sense of to pass/to spend. This construction is extremely common in Falgwian:


Ko-we nas wuly ko monitake.

I went to the beach on Monday.


Ko is also used in time constructions such as ago and others illustrated below:


Sityhu nefemair nas ko manis mylime.

I lived there three years ago.


Damasier (dein) ko kelime.

I leave in a week.


Dylunain-tai (dyn) wydasenei ko kelime.

The project will take a week to complete.


Ko is also used to emphasise a personal or important noun. This use of ko is trickier but it is not a hard and fast rule so it's not required. Note: This use of ko can only be used when the noun referenced by ko is in the nominative or genitive.


Ko hywa tylanai.

In my opinion.


Ko mynasai-wydu Tekei.

In memory of Tekei.


Tei'getameir ko hywa leikwai misenyt hweidat ma'fadatait.

My mother used to make the best cookies.


The particle ko is presumed to have been formed of a merger between the historical verb for to go (konait) and a preposition ko.

Other Particles

Ony Particle:

To say something is about a topic or a thing, say politics, say Ony'politiky, or On' if a vowel. The current genitive is almost definite and is more concrete and formal and some would say slightly archaic. If you want your specific Politics Book, use the Genitive, if you want a book about Politics, say Ony'politiky nywokai. This is also used for names of news companies, magazines, and general companies. It is more indefinite. In fact, in some dialects and demographics, especially among teenagers, the genitive is almost completely falling out of use and being replaced by the Ony particle.


Teine Particle:

Teine means never as in "never up until to the time of reference, and never in the future." It is a strong word and often stressed. Teine contrasts with Neket in that Neket means "never up until the time of reference, but no consensus on the future".

There is also Teini+adjective which is roughly equivalent to English so, really, super in so much, really hot, super cool, etc.


At Particle:

The At particle is no longer used in modern Falgwian. Its use is only preserved in some phrases such At Tugalin (For Luck's Sake). In some earlier writing--pre 20th century--the at particle may be seen in infinitival phrases. For example: Faligeir at mywait (I want to eat). This form is no longer used in favour of simply stacking the verbs together ie. Faligeir mywait. The particle at was also a subordinator that was used to mean how.


K'y Particle:

The K'y particle indicates the approachment of a goal. It is a contraction of Ko and Y. It is used as follows; case markings are not used:

Myreir naiwarat katalai hylateir k'y ekisamai.

I believe that I am going to pass the test tomorrow.

Demonstratives

The demonstratives are both adjectives and pronouns and they don't decline. They are not as commonly used as in English or French, and are only beginning to see more usage among the younger generation as a manner to be more expressive. They are from the Polish accusative pronouns. The plural forms are used for both dual and plural nouns.

Falgwian English
1 egun this
2 mugegun these
3 igun that
4 mugigun those
5 agun yonder
6 mugagun yonders

Syntax

Except in rare cases such as those mentioned above with comparatives, superlatives, and adverbs, the verb must begin a Falgwian sentence. One exception to this rule not noted above is that, in more elevated speech, if an adverb precedes a verb, the verb can be pushed past the noun in the sentence so long as the subject and object are not pronouns. For example:

Medu mywat wolykait lumasein nas.

He cleaned his room well.

Numbers

See Falgwian Numbers (which also includes years and dates).

Numbers in Falgwian are base 10.

Ordinal
1 dana
2 hena
3 munama
4 wona
5 sita
6 kotuna
7 lena
8 goma
9 wesa
10 tita

There are no ordinal numbers beyond using the numbers as adjectives. Zero is onama.

Punctuation

Falgwian punctuation consists of many of the same punctuation marks as most European languages ie. periods, commas, colons, semi-colons, question marks, exclamation marks, parenthesis, etc. A few unique uses are outlined below:

Commas- Falgwian always uses commas to offset subordinate clauses as well as infinitives. It also uses commas to link two independent clauses where there is no conjunction. Falgwian also does not have the concept of the Oxford comma in lists (ie. the final comma before and). As well, when creating a list with and before each separate noun, a comma must come before every and but the first and. Finally, like other European languages, Falgwian uses a comma where American English uses a decimal point in numerical expressions. However, Falgwian uses a decimal point or space where American English uses a comma in larger numbers.

Quotation Marks- Falgwian uses the quotation marks „ “ as well as «  »/»«, however the latter is seen far less frequently. There are no rules regarding which to use. Falgwian places all additional punctuation within the quotation marks. Quotation marks in Falgwian, however, have a more expanded use than in English. Where in English they are used for the titles of poems, articles, short stories, songs and TV shows, in Falgwian they are also used for titles of books, novels, films, dramatic works and the names of newspapers or magazines (which would be italicized (or underlined in writing) in English). Lastly, Falgwian uses the single quotation , ’ marks to mark a quotation within a quotation.

Apostrophe- The apostrophe is widely used in Falgwian to mark the contraction of certain particles as outlined above. It is also used to indicate part of a word which is missing.

Dash- The dash is used widely in Falgwian to link particles as outlined above as well as numbers, adjectives, and titles. It is also used as in English to indicate a pause (with either a dash or an em-dash). Falgwian uses the dash to indicate a change in speaker when no quotation marks are present, and finally, Falgwian uses a dash or em-dash to indicate two zeros in a price.

Capital letters- Capital letters in Falgwian are used for all proper nouns excluding titles (capitals are not used for language, nationality, country names, etc. though they are used for cities). Capitals are also used for acronyms and titles of publications (except insignificant words such as ei (this is almost exactly the same as the same practice in English)). Up until a spelling reform in the early in 1960s, Falgwian also used to capitalise all nouns, however today this practice is no longer accepted as a standard.

Telling Time

Ha is a word used to tell time.

Ha dana.

It is one o'clock.

Ha dana ei dinita.

It is one thirteen.

In Falgwian, there are no words for noon, midnight, quarter past, ten after, etc.

Falgwians also always use the 24:00 clock.

Hour- Hane (is the origin of ha) (Ha is also used as hrs in English ie. 24ha 24hrs)

Minute- Tyme

Second- Dyne

N.B. Ha is pronounced /ha/ not /a/.

Also remember, Ko dana tyme- One minute ago

Expressing Age

To express age in Falgwian use the expression:

Ko ha henatita.

I am 22 years old.

The expression is very idiomatic, and needs to be memorised as such. To express the past, use a past particle after ko according to particle supremacy. To ask how old someone is use ko plus the appropiate nominative genitive pronoun:

Ko nywa?

Letter Writing

Ko ty-Smith

Dear Mr. Smith

(Ko is used for letters or presents to mean to someone. "From" is name-wydu)

For Sincerely use thank you, Maleir-na

Legal Writing

Falgwian, for its part, actually simplifies language for legalese, but not for the benefit of the people as one would suspect. One of the staples of the Falgwian grammar are many structures which are used to emphasise or de-emphasise a given element of the language. Examples of this include the preterite perfective and aorist perfective, which are differentiated by whether or not the speaker wants to emphasise the action or not. It is not a matter of whether a given use is grammatical or not, but more the intentions of the speaker. Another such case is the particle Ko which is placed before a noun in the nominative or genitive to indicate that the noun is of importance to the speaker. These are features which legalese lacks. Since the aorist perfective is stronger at emphasising an action than the preterite perfective is at de-emphasising it, the preterite is exclusively used in legal writing to refer to the perfective past. There is also an imperfective aspect in Falgwian which exclusively uses the aorist imperfective since the preterite imperfective fell out of use long ago. As can be suspected, particles like Ko are also not used in legal writing to indicate importance or emphasis. The goal of Falgwian legal writing is to make the text as neutral as possible in a language which lacks grammatical features which exclusively express neutrality.

Patronymic Naming System in Falgwian

Falgwian has a patronymic naming system. It works as follows:

Dadywei Tykonasai has a son named Ty. Ty's last name is then Dadywai. If he has a daughter named Kwiny, her name is Kwiny Dadywai.

So, for example:

Falgwia Press Officer Kwiny Gwamai is the son of Gwamei Hwynitai and Kuly Namonai. Kwiny's husband is Tomaskei Gryzbowskai (from former Polish name Tomasz Gryzbowsky), their kids are Tynei Tomaskai and Lywany Tomaskai. Foreign names can be incorporated into last names, however this is not commonly done. Usually, only ethnic Flagwians opt to follow the patronymic naming system.

Also note:

Ty-Tynai

Tei-Teinai

Common Phrases and Expressions

Google in Falgwian

Hello- Hywi or Hei or Hai

How are you?- Hwog nadysiem-na (nywi)?

Good- Medy

Bad- Tedy

I am good- Nadysier-wa (ha) medy

Thank you- Maleir-na (ha)

Goodbye- Mywasim or Mywa

My name is...:

Formal: I call myself...- Hwyfanair-wo (ha)...

Informal: Call me...- Hwyfanai-wa...

What is your name?- Hwar hwyfanait-no (lit: What do you call yourself?)

I am from...- War (ha) ___-wydu (Kind of idiomatic)

Yes- Ka

No- Wi